of Folii^ toriillliig in Jamestown
Ja^fstown pioneers from Poland /
THE POLISH AMERICAN CONGRESS
77V COMMEMORATION OF
THE 350TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ARRIVAL OF
THE FIRST POLES IN AMERICA
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 2 8tb, 1958
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THE WHITE HOUSE
PRESIDENT POLISH AMERICAN CONGRESS, INC. ,
1514-20 WEST DIVISION ST - CHICAGO
IT IS A PLEASURE TO SEND GREETINGS TO
THE MEMBERS OF THE POLISH AMERICAN CONGRESS
JOINED IN THE CELEBRATION OF THE 350th ANNIVER-
SARY OF THE ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST POLES TO THE
SHORES OF OUR CONTINENT.
SINCE THE EARLIEST DAYS, AMERICANS OF
POLISH ORIGIN HAVE CONTRIBUTED MUCH OF THEIR
RICH CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND SPIRITUAL HERI-
TAGE TO THIS LAND. IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND
CONTINUING PROMISE OF OUR COUNTRY, POLISH -
AMERICAN CITIZENS PLAY A VITAL ROLE. BEST
WISHES FOR A FINE CELEBRATION.
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
THE COMPANY WILL APPRECIATE SUCCESTIONS FROM ITS PATRONS CONCERNING ITS SERVICE
The Jamestown Chapter in the annals of the
United States met with a strange and truly sing-
In the conglomeration of events whidh led to
the War Between the States and its aftermath,
Jamestown became the subject matter of an in-
tense and partisan controversy.
As a natural result and consequence of this
fateful conflict, the point of view of the North
prevailed in textbooks, in the interpretation of
historical events, and even extended to historical
Thus Jamestown, geographically situated in the
territory of the South, has been relegated for
whole decades within the category of minor events
in the history of our land. Even the life and
achievements of fabulous Captain John Smith were
subjects of disparagement.
The fact, that the Jamestown epic antedates
the Pilgrim saga often has been minimized. Many
Americans were not aware of the fact that James-
town and its outlying plantations had already
their own House of Burgesses, and the Polish
Jamestowners had won their strike for enfran-
chisement before the Mayflower reached the
American shores in 1620. This fact, however, does
not detract from the Piligirims' glory of achieve-
ments. In the majestic panorama of our land,
Jamestown and Plymouth Rock can proudly share
historic limelight as the repositories of American
At the turn of the present century, a rennais-
sance in historical objectivity began and James-
town regained its rightful place in the annals of
Americana, as "the cradle of the Republic," and
the Jamestowners — as the "beginners of a nation."
The 300th anniversary of the founding of the
colony was commemorated in 1907 with the im-
pressive Jamestown obelisk honoring these pio-
* * •
Due to these circumstances, the Polish James-
towners who linked their destiny with those of
the first settlers of Virginia, fared no better tfhan
their co-pioneers in recorded recognition.
This is the first national observance in which
Americans of Polish origin or descent are honor-
ing the memory of their Jamestown ancestors
That the Poles were among the pioneers of Vir-
ginia and shared the fortunes and misfortunes
of the first white settlers in this part of our land,
was a logical sequence of the Anglo-Polish econo-
mic and cultural ties developed throughout pre-
ceding centuries in Europe.
* * •
Poland, at that time, had reached the zenith of
the "Golden Epoch" of her history. Kings Zyg-
munt III and Wladyslaw IV were laying the
groundwork of "the great design," which, had it
been realized, would have created a United States
of Central and Eastern Europe. The thesis of Am-
drzej Frycz Modrzewski, far ahead of his times,
"0 Naprawie Rzeczypospolitej," constituted the
basis of contemporary intellectual discussions. One
of the foremost European statesmen, Jan Zamoy-
ski, who died in 1605, left his nation, Poland, a
noble legacy known to historians as the "Expe-
riment in the Royal Republic." Sobieski's Vienna
victory, which was to arrest the advance of Islam
into Europe forever, was yet to come.
* * •
The Poles came to Jamestown not as adven-
turers or mercenaries, but as desperately needed
by the Colony craftsmen and experienced soldiers,
recruited in Europe by the Virginia Company, at
the insistence of Captain John Smith.
We have no accurate historical data as to how
many Poles there were originally in Jamestown.
It is certain that a group of them came to Virginia
on the second supply ship, Mary and Margaret,
which docked at Jamestown in October, 1608.
Scattered records, documents and accounts writ-
ten by original Jamestowners indicate that the
number of the pioneers from Poland was of an
extent to merit mention and their achievements
and contributions to the welfare and growth of
the Colony of a character to command deserved
Much research work is yet to be performed in
order to fully uncover and ascertain facts hitherto
hidden in musty archives, ship maniftests and
* * •
The Jamestown story reveals that the love of
liberty was prevalent in the colony. Thus, the
Poles found themselves in congenial company.
When, however, at the time of the constituting
of the General Assembly full liberty and equality
for all of the colonists was mitigated against,
the Poles intrepidly asserted their rights and won
These details are more fully set forth and ex-
plained in the following pages of this book.
My aim is not to discuss the various historical
aspects of this anniversary as interesting and fas-
cinating as they prove to be.
My duty and privilege is to greet you on these
hallowed Jamestown grounds, on this 350th anni-
versary of the arrival thereto of the Polish pio-
neers; to express on behalf of the Executive Of-
ficers of the Polish American Congress our deep
and heartfelt thanks and appreciation to all of
those who contributed to the success of this ob-
servance; and to re-assert on this so memorable
an occasion that seven million Americans of Po-
lish origin cherish gratefully the legacy left to
us by our ancestors, and to renew the declaration,
that our mission is and shall at all times be to
defend the spiritual heritage of our pioneers.
CHARLES ROZMAREK, President
Polish American Congress.
The arrival of the settlers at Jamestown. (A painting
by Griffith Baily Coale in the Stale Capitol. Richmond,
erected by the United
States in 1907 to com-
memorate the 300th
anniversary of the
landing- of the first
with the new cause-
way leading to the
mainland and Glass-
JAMESTOWN IN VIRGINIA
April — King James I granted a charter to the Vir-
ginia Company of London.
December 19-20 — A group of 105 colonists and 39
mariners sailed from England in three small
ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery,
under the command of Captains Christopher New-
port, Bartholomew Gosnold and John Ratcliffe,
April 26 — The ships reached the Chesapeake Bay.
sailed up the James River for 17 days, and then
chose a small peninsula SO miles from its mouth
as the site of the colony.
September — Capx. John Smith became President of
the colony by popular demand (Ratcliffe deposed).
October — Second supply ship, Mary and Margaret
arrived under the command of Capx. Christopher
Newport, bringing "eight Dutch men and Poles,
with some others to the number of seaventie per-
— Glass House built with the help of Poles as-
signed to the project by Capt. Smith.
— Manufacture of tar, pitch and potash started.
December — First samples of American-made export
goods ready for shipment to England (tryals of
Pitch, Tarre. Glasse, Frankimcense. Sope Ashes
with Clapboord and Waynscot"— True Travels).
Cape Henry — Where the Pioneers Landed
From a painting by Stephen Reid in the Norfolk iluneum of Arte and Science), Norfolk, Virginia
1609-10 — Capi. Smith wounded in conspiracy of Rat-
cliffe and Archer, departed (around Christmas
time) for England. "The Starring Time"; only 65
colonists survived. Arrival of Lord De La Ware's
1619 — The House of Burgesses met; the Poles struck
for civil liberties.
1622 — The Pamunkee Indians..) attacked the settle-
ment, killing 350 men. women and children; the
colonists struck back with vengeance and the In-
dians left them alone for the next 20 years.
1624 — The Virginia Company of London lost
1644 — The Pamunkees attacked again wreaking havoc
in the colony.
1676 — Jamestown burned to the ground during the
1698 — Fire destroyed adjacent village; the remaining
settlers left the ruins and moved to the "Middle
plantation" which in 1699 took the name of Wil-
* * »
1) Listed among the arrivals with Delaware were: —
Lawrence Bohun and Lt. Puttocke (Potocki).
2) Indians were organized in 40 tribes of about 20,000
people. After Powhatan's daughter. Pocahontas, married
John Rolfe in April, 1613, the Indian attacks ceased for
a time. Powhatan was the chief of 30 tribes.
3) Nathaniel Bacon was the leader of the colonists'
revolt against the tyranny of Governor Sir William
%4 MAP OF VIRGINIA.
WITH A DESCRIPTI-
ON of the COVNTREYJHE
ment and Religion.
WrttunbyCifUine Suirn f /hmetimesGa*
VVHEREVNTO IS ANNEXED THE
proceedings ofchofe Colonies jfmcc their firft
departure from England,with the difcourfes,
Orations,and relations of the Salvages,
and the accidents that befell
them in all their Iourmes
TAKEN FAITHFULLY tAS THEY
were written out of the writings of
Doctor Rvsseil. Ri chard Wj efi k.
Tho.Sttdley. Wiii.Phiiti Puct.
AnasTodkill. Nathaniel P o v? £ l u
Ietfra Abot. Richard Pots.
And the relations of divers other diligent obfervers there
trefent iben^ndnow many ofrhem m England*
KjiT OXFORD %
Printed by Jofeph Barnes* I6*I2<
Thomas L. Williams. Photo
These are terse statements . . . only guideposts to the discovery and understanding of the
historic drama in which Polish Jamestowners took prominent part.
"Robert, a Polonian," captured an Indian elder in a battle. It is only one heroic episode in
defense of the colony, heroic enough to be recorded in the testimony of witnesses.
"Two of the Poles" saved Capt. John Smith's life in the vicinity of the Glass House.
"Matthew, a Poland er," slain in the Indian massacre of 1620.
A stirring story of valor, perseverance and sacrifices is hidden within these simple words.
It needs to be uncovered in further historical research for the edification of posterity.
"Polonian residents in Virginia" granted enfranchisement and "made as free as any inhabitant
there whatsoever," after they successfully struck for civic liberties.
These are only the opening statements in the history yet to be reconstructed from scattered,
hidden and forgotten records . . . the story of Pioneers of Industry, Defenders of Liberty, Soldiers
of Political Equality . . . the story to which Conway Whittle Sams has written in "The Conquest
of Virginia," a beautiful motto: — "All we know of the Poles is to their credit."
"They Were The First Heroes Of American History'*
Eyewitness Accounts of:
Edward Channing, A History of the U. S.
Captain John Smith
Captain William Powell
The original Jamestowners who testify to the
presence of Poles in "the cradle of the Republic,"
are: — Capt. John Smith, who came to the colony
with the first group of founders, stayed in James-
town from May 1607 to the end of 1609, was one
of the leaders of the colony and for a brief period
its president; Richard Wiffin, William Phetti-
place, Anas Todkill, Captain Willam Powell, Wil-
liam Cantrill, Sgt. Bootihe and Edward Gurganey.
Their writings appear in a collective work. Its
first part, "A Map of Virginia, With a Description
of the Countrey, The Commodities, People, Gov-
ernment and Religion" had been written by Capt.
Smith in Jamestown in 1608- The second part con-
sists of reports written by eight Jamestown pio-
neers as additions to Smith's narrative, — "Where-
onto is annexed the proceedings of those Colonies,
since their first departure from England, with the
discourses, Orations, and relations of the Sal-
vages, and the accidents that befell them in all
their Journies and discoveries, — taken faithfully
as they were written out of the writings of Doctor
Russel, Thos. Studley, Anas Todkill, Ieffra Abot,
Richard Wief in, Will. Phettiplace, Nathaniel Pow-
ell, Richard Potts." The book had been edited by
Reverend William Simmons and published at Ox-
ford in 1612.
In Smith's part (A Map of Virginia, etc.), we
"Muscovia and Poloniai) doe a yearly recaue
many thousands for pitch, tarre, sope ashes,
[The Second Part of A Map of VIRGINIA. 1 6 1 *.J
THE ENGLISH COLONIE IN
Virginia since their first beginning from
England in the yenre of our Lord ibo6,
till this present 1612, with all their
accidents that befell them in their
Iournies and Discoveries.
Also the Salvages discourses, orations and relations
of the Bordering neighbours, and how they be-
came subiect to the English.
Unfolding even the fundament all causes from -whence haue sprang so many
miseries to the 'undertakers, and scandals to the businesse : taken faith-
fully as they were written out of the writings of Thomas
Studley the first provant maister, Anas Todkill, Walter
Russell Doctor of Phisicke, N at h ante 11 Powell,
William Pbettyplace, Richard Wyfjin, Thomas
Abbay, Tho : Hope, Rich : Pots ana
the labours of divers other dili-
gent observers, that were
residents in Virginia.
And perused and confirmed by diverse now resident in
England that were actors in this busines.
By W. S.
Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1 6 1 2,
/ he cim
Muscovia and Polnnia doe yearely receaue many thou-
sands, for pitch, tunc, sope ashes, Rosen, Flax, Cordage,
Sturgeon, masts, yards, wainscot, Firres, glasse, and sue
Ter, for Wine, Canvas, and Salt ; Spaine asmuch for
Iron, Steele, Figges, Reasons, and Sackes. Italy with
Page 360 — "A Map of Virginia."
Rosen, Flax, Cordage, Sturgeon, masts, yards,
wainscot, Firres, glasse and such like."
In the second part (The Proceedings), in a re-
port signed by Smith's co-pioneers, Wiffin, Phetti-
place and Todkill, we find three references to the
In Chapter VII:—
"As for the hiring of the Poles;) and Dutch, to
make pitch and tarre, glasse, milles, and soap
ashes was most necessarie and well."
In the same chapter the writers list the names
of the persons who came to Jamestown in Octo-
ber, 1608, with the second supply. Among the
names we find "Michael Lowicke, a gentleman,"
and at the end of the list this statement:
"8 Dutchmen and Poles with divers to the
number of 70 persons.'^)
In Chapter IX, under the title of "Howe we
escape surprizing at Pamaunke," we find a des-
cription of a struggle between Smith and Indian
Chief Powhatan (1609) in which we read that
Smith, returning from the Glasshouse, encoun-
tered the king of Paspahegh, ''a most stout Sal-
vage," and —
"Long they struggled in the water, from whence
the king, perceiving two of the Poles upon the
sandes, would haue fled: but the President held
him by the haire and throat til the Poles came
In "Generall Historie of Virginia, New Eng-
land, and the Summer lies with the names of Ad-
venturers, Planters and Governours from! their
first beginning An: 1548 to this present 16124"
(Oxford, 1625), we find six books (chapters), of
which the first describes early voyages to Amer-
ica; the second is a reprint with variations of the
first part of the Map of Virginia; the third is a
reprint with variations of the Proceedings ; the
fourth takes up history of Jamestown after
Smith's departure to the dissolution of the Virginia
Company in May, 1624; the fifth and sixth chap-
ters deal with Bermuda and New England.
In Generall Historie we find a new reference
by Smith to the Poles in Jamestown : —
"All this time we had but one Carpenter in the
Countrey, and three others that could doe little,
but desisted to be lerners; two Blacksmiths; two
saylers; and those we write laborers were for
most part footmen, and such as they could per-
swade to goe with them, that neuer did know
what dayes worke was: except the Dutch men
and Poles and some dozen other."
In book four, which is a compilation of extracts
from other narratives interspersed with Smith's
comments, we find a report signed by Captain
Nathaniel Powell, William Cantrill, Sergeant
Boothe and Edward Gurganey, describing a fight
of the colonists with Indians, in 1616, in which
two Indian elders were captured: —
". . . two of their eight Elders, the one tooke
by Sergeant Boothe, the other by Robert, a Polo-
In addition to these publications, we have a
pamphlet written in 1622 by Edward Waterhouse,
who survived the Indian attack on Jamestown in
that same year. In it, Waterhouse mentions "Mat-
thew a Polander" as one of the victims of the
* * *
SUMMING UP : — The Poles were in Jamestown
in 1608, 1609 and 1616; they were hired by the
Virginia Company of London as experts, to make
glass, tar, pitch and soap ashes. As the Smith's
fight with the Indian chief occurred near the Glass
House, and the Indian "perceived two of the
Poles," it's obvious that there must have been
more Poles working in the Glass House.
(It appears from Generall Historie, that some
of the Colonials were teaching the Powhatan
Indians the use of firearms. Smith, determined
to put a stop to this practice, went to the woods
in the vicinity of the Glass House "neare a myle
from James Towne," where "fortie men ... lie in
Ambuscado for Captaine Smith." Eluding this
trap, Smith encountered Powhatan).
l)It is difficult to cite exact figures on the
Polish trade, but the export of Polish ashes
Gdansk alone amounted to about 1,000,000
zlotys (1,500,000 Polish zlotys), or about 37,000
yearly as late as the 17th century: even in
century 21,000 barrels of ashes were exported
through that port. The export of potash to
amounted at that time to about 15,000 barrel
commanded to seize on them they could for prisoner
which beinj^ done^^xou^n^^^^j^^^^^^
i ilium nw* ipi
wee presently discharged, where twelue
lay, some dead, the rest for life sprawling on the ground,
twclue more we tooke prisoners, two whereof were brothers,
two of their ei^ht Elders, the one tooke by Sergeant
Bpnlhc, the other by Ruhcrt a I'vlunuiii .
WW^^W^^W^WW^^^TCkTTti 7 their
ransomes, which was promised the Souldicrs for a reward,
"The Fourth Booke of the Proceedings," etc.
Export of Polish wood, clapboards and other wood
products amounted annually to 20 million Polish zlotys
(about 50,000 pounds) in the 18th century, but it must
have been much higher in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Polish exports of flax and linen to England was pro-
portionally large. — Tadeusz Korzon: — Wewne/trzne Dzie-
je Polski za Stanislawa Augusta.
2)"It is not surprising to find the Company looking
abroad and among the seventy settlers who sailed for
Virginia in the summer of 1608 were "eight Dutchmen
and Poles," some of whom were glassmakers. The so-
called Dutchmen undoubtedly came from Germany, for
Captain John Smith in one of his letters mentions that
the London Company has sent to Germany and Poland
for "glasse-men and the rest," "the rest" referring to
the makers of pitch, tar, soap ashes and clapboard."
("Glassmaking at Jamestown" by J. C. Harrington)
3)"The first real step towards permanency came with
the second supply which brought among its seventy
new settlers a number of artisans, including the eight
Dutchmen and Poles . . . Captain John Smith . . . dis-
patched some of the newcomers to making glass, tar,
pitch, soap ashes and clapboard." (Ibid).
4)"The Dutchmen appear to have given trouble from
the first, and it is doubtful if they ever contributed
much to the glassmaking effort, beyond possibly as-
sisting in the initial construction of the glasshouse. We
know that some of them were carpenters, for they were
sent to Chief Powhatan's village to build houses for
the Indians. It appears more likely that the Poles were
the glassmakers, for Smith, in his account of the fight
with an Indian near the glasshouse, says that the Indian
attempted to flee upon "perceiving two of the Poles."
With the second supply came workmen sent
over to produce glass, pitch, soap ashes, and other
items profitable in England. These men, including
some Poles and Dutchmen, were quickly assigned
to specific duties. So rapidly did they begin that
"tryals" of at least one product, glass, were sent
home when Newport left Jamestown before the
end of the year. — Charles E. Hatch
If Jamestown had failed, Spain and France ulti-
mately might have divided all of North America
between them and the United States of America
might never have come into being.
— Louis B. Wright, Professor of American History
The Records of The
The next indisputable evidence of the presence
of Poles in Jamestown is incorporated in the
Records of the Virginia Company of London.
The surviving originals of these records are
located in 39 different institutions in England and
America. They were compiled in the years of 1906-
1935, by Susan Myra Kingsbury and published in
four volumes by the Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C, 1935.
In the first three volumes we find references
to Jamestown Poles, variously described as
"Polackers," "Polanders" or "Polonians."
Let's study them:
Under date of July 21, 1619, in the Court Book
Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident in
Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding any
former order to the contrary) that they shall be
enfranchised, and made as free as any inhabitant
there whatsoever: and because their skill in making
pitch and tar and soapashes shall not die with them,
it is agreed that some young men shall be put unto
them to learn their skill and knowledge therein for
the benefit of the country hereafter. (Vol. 1, p. 251).
Under date of May 17, 1620, reads as follows:
Pitch and tar: potashes and soap ashes, for the
making whereof the Polackers are returned to their
work. (Vol I, p. 353).
An order dated May 17, 1620, reads as follows:
For pitch and tar, we advise and require that the
Polackers be returned in part to these their works,
with such other assistance as shall be necessary.
The like we shall desire for Pot-ashes and Sope-
ashes, when there shall be fit store of hand to as-
sist them: Requiring in the meane time, the care be
generally taken, that Seruants and Apprentices be
so trained up in these works, as that the skill doe
not perish together with the Masters (The Poles).
(Vol. III. p. 278).
For June 22, 1620, there is recorded:
For hemp and flax, potashes and soapashes, pitch
and tar. there is a Treaty already on foot, for pro-
curing of men skillful in those trades from the East-
ern parts: besides the Polakers yet remaining in
Virginia. (Vol. III. p. 304).
Another reference is made in a report in 1622:
A true list of names of all those that were mas-
sacred by the treachery of the Savages in Virginia
at Martin Brandons: Lieutenant Sanders, Ensigne
Sherley. John Taylor and his wife, two boys, and
Mathew, a Polander. (Vol. III. p. 569).
Two other statements refer to claims of Molasco
the Polander made against the company in person
at the business sessions in 1623 and 1624. The
first reference is made on February 19, 1623:
Molasco the Polander likewise earnestly besought
that his petition might be read alleging that he had
attended about a quarter of a year, and the Earl of
Southhampton said that if his case were as he were
informed he had suffered much wrong.
Mr. Deputy said that he was not altogether ignor-
ant of the matter but know that there was so foul
oppression that had been used to the poor man, and
likewise upon divers others in the like cases as he
was afraid, both the Companies and the Plantations
did to the weight of their own sins suffer God pun-
ishment for these former offences: Wherefore he
thought it most necessary to endeavor the righting
of him. but thai was to be done according to the
form prescribed by the Quarter Court: In this Court
it could not be done his case being very long and
somewhat intricate: Whereupon the Earl of South-
hampton willed Mr. Deputy with all convenient
speed that might be to call the Committee to whom
the matter was referred that so the Court might
do him justice: Which Mr. Deputy promised. (Vol.
II. p. 279).
The second reference is dated February 2, 1624 :
Molasco the Polander petitioning for such money
he said his maties: Commissioners found due unto
him from the Company was answered that the
Company made it appear by their answer to ye said
commissioners that he was not to be satisfied from
them but from such as have received great allow-
ances from the Company for satisfaction of him and
the rest of the Polanders as appeared upon the
Company's Accounts. (Vol. II, p. 510).
In addition to these the Company records con-
tain five more references to Poland, June 12, 1620:
For pitch and tar, true it is, that as some quan-
tity hath hithertofor bee named, so may there be
some hereafter, but some here that have lived long
in Poland's principal country for that commodity,
there be whole forests of pytch trees and none else,
and that for four and five hundred miles together
in this part of Virginia the same kind of trees grow
but scattering one here and one there, and may
indeed be employed to that use but with great labor,
and as great loss. (Vol. Ill, p. 303).
On June 22, 1620, we read :
The masts, planks and boards, the pilch and tar,
the potashes and soapashes, the hemp and flax,
which now we fetch from Norway, Denmark, Po-
land, and Germany, are there to be had in abund-
ence and great perfection. (Vol. Ill, p. 308).
Under date of November 13, 1620, we find :
A certain writing was exhibited to the court by
one Gabriel Wisher a man well known to some of
this Company, who understanding that divers staple
commodities are intended to be set up in Virginia
makes offer to this Company to procure out of Po-
land* and Sweadland (where he is well acquainted)
men skillful in making of pilch and tar, potashes and
soapashes, clapboards, and pipestames, dressers of
hemp and flax. (Vol. I, p. 420).
The entry for December 13, 1620, reads:
Gabriel Wisher having presented himself unto the
court with offer of his service for procuring men
skillful in divers commodities out of Sweadland and
Poland at an easy charge so he might have his mats.
(Vol. I. p. 430).
In a report given on June 19, 1622, we read:
And as for Captain Hazell he is neither Adven-
turer in the Company nor planter in Colony but a
mere stranger to bothe otherwise known to them
then as an Interpreter to a Polonian Lord. (Vol.
II. p. 42).
SUMMING UP:— The Jamestown statements in
the Record of the Virginia Company disclose that
the Poles were skilled workers and instructors
(masters), who made pitch, tar and soapashes in
1619 and 1620 ; that they became involved in suc-
cessful dispute over enfranchisement in 1619, and
that one of their number, "Matthew a Polander"
perished in the Indian massacre of 1622, and one,
"Molasco the Polander" souigiht redress for his
sufferings and injustices.
'We learn from the narrative that the first names ofjthree of the
Dutchmen were, Adam. Francis mid Samuel. They proved to he
undesirable additions to the Colony. All we know of the Poles is
to their credit.
•Smith's Hisforv <>f v;. ■„;..;.• " -" '
Page 823 — Conway Whittle Sams' "The Conquest of Virginia"
Sty? Sworfca of
StyV Hirgmta Glompang of llmtfrm
THE COURT BOOK, FROM THE MANUSCRIPT
IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. BY
SUSAN MYRA KINGSBURY, A, M. ( Ph. D.
INSTRUCTOR IN HISTORY AND ECONOMIC!
JVLY 2U 1619
Vpon some dispute of the Polonians resident in Virginia, it was now
agreed (notw^standing any former order to the contrary) that they
shalbe' enfranchized, and made as free as any inhabitant there what-
soeuer: And because their skill in making pitch & tarr and sope-
ashees shall not dye w ,h them, it is agreed that some young men,
shalbe put vnto them to learne their skill & knowledge therein for
the benefitt of the Country hereafter. 
^Political relations between England and Poland were,
on the whole, very friendly during the last decades of
the 16th and the first decades of the 17th centuries. The
Polish King Stefan Batory (1575-1586) and his wise
chancellor Jan Zamoyski, took great care to keep up this
Queen Elizabeth, on the other hand, highly prized the
friendship of Poland, not only because of her politics
directed against the Habsburgs, but also because Poland
was then in an important position in the English foreign
During the first years of Batory's successor, King
Zygmunt III (1587-1632), friendly relations between the
countries were continued. They cooled off for a time
when Zygmunt showed a leaning towards the Habs-
burgs, but with the ascension to the throne of James I
they soon improved.
King Charles I continued this policy. He even planned
to marry his niece to King Wladyslaw IV (1632-48),
Zygmunt's son and successor.
"No nation loved and esteemed your Poles more than
nations subject to us," wrote Charles I to Wladyslaw
on January 17, 1634.
Many Polish nobles visited England during this period.
A noteworthy event, too, was the Scotch immigration to
Poland, which assumed quite large proportions in the
16th and 17th centuries. — Stanistaw Kot: — Anglo-Polo-
At the time of the Poles' strike for enfranchise-
ment — "Provision was made for a General As-
sembly to be held once yearly with power to make
laws. The Assembly would be composed of the
Governor and Council and two burgesses from
each plantation freely elected by the inhabitants
thereof. Thus began in America government of
the people, for the people and by the people."
-F. D. Ribble
THE POLES LANDED HERE in OCTOBER. 1608
The4 debarked from the Sailer Mary and Margaret. . .paon mere followed b*( others
and the number of Fblish pioneers grew throughout the history of Jamestown. .
they mere instrumental in saving the colony fiwn failure... in Wilding the Glasshouse, v.
in nanufacture of gloss, pitch, tar avd potash.. .in saving the fife of Copt. John Smith.. ; ,
in winning the first strike for civic liberties in the Neiu World.
r;e ucunq ^e'-. ^ri^cjj pur m-
'';," ■■'■-/ '-".JTi.'-v- J
Outside Exhibit prepared by the Polish Am erican Congress in consultation with the Colonial
National Historical Park branch of the Department of the Interior, and accepted for display at the
historic Glass House site by the Jamestown Committee Association for the Preservation of Virginia
Secondary accounts, or reconstructions of the
Jamestown events and the Poles' participation in
them, are based on primary sources and were
written by several students of the early American
history. Foremost among- them are: —
Rev. Waclaw Kruszka, author of Historia Polska
w Ameryce (1937) ;
Miecislaus Haiman, eminent Polish-American
historian and journalist who published four essays
about the Polish Jamestowners — Z Przeszlosci
Polskiej w Ameryce (1927), Polish Pioneers of
Virginia and Kentucky (1937) and Polish Past in
America— 1608-1865 (1939) ;
Dr. Karol Wachtl, well known journalist, poet
and historian, who, in his Polonia w Ameryce,
gave the names and. places of origin of the first
Polish pioneers in Jamestown.*
We are reprinting herewith Haiman's essay
originally published in the Polish Past in America.
Poles in America
(Polish Past in America,
Polish Roman Catholic Union, 1939)
Poland influences the founding of English col-
onies in America. — The beginnings of Virginia
also mark the beginnings of the history of Polish
immigration in this country. To some degree, Po-
land influenced the founding of that oldest Eng-
lish colony in America.
Early in the 17th century England suffered a
heavy economic crisis. The destruction of her for-
ests for commercial purposes threatened the very
existence of her industry, especially three of its
most important branches: ship building, wool
manufactures and foundries. All three required
great quantities of lumber, wood and wood prod-
ucts. To supply these needs England was forced
to import large quantities of those materials from
foreign countries, particularly from Poland. The
main purpose of the Plymouth Company and of
the Virginia Company of London, chartered by
James I, for the colonization of North America,
was to make England independent of Polish and
Pioneers of American History. — Jamestown was
founded in 1607, by the first immigrants sent by
the Virginia Company. A year later, in October
1608, the Poles appeared for the first time in the
colony. They arrived with the Second Supply en-
gaged by the Company as experts and instructors
in the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and
other products which Poland exported to England.
The exact number of this group is not known,
but they were not more than a handful.
Immediately after their arrival the Poles started
their work. They built a glass furnace about a mile
from Jamestown and cut down the first trees for
wood manufactures ; in a short time they were
able to send to England the first samples of their
work which were in fact the first products of
American industry. However, their labors soon
met with great obstacles. Indians, pestilence and
famine attacked the colony.
The winter of 1609-1610 was especially severe
and became known in the history of Virginia as
"starving time"; of four hundred colonists only
sixty survived. Worst of all, however, was the
disorder which reigned in the colony. Most of the
first settlers were the famous "vagabond gentle-
men" who were accustomed to easy life and came
to Virginia in quest of fabulous gold mines. In
contrast to them, the Poles conducted themselves
very creditably. Captain John Smith who did not
mince words when speaking of his lazy country-
men, spoke of the Poles in terms of the highest
praise. "They," said he, meaning the colonists gen-
erally, "never did know what a day's work was
except the Dutcnmen and Poles." Later documents
speak of the Poles with praises, too, and the Vir-
ginia Company tried, not without success, to in-
duce more of them to come over from Europe.
the liyringof llie Poles and Dulr/i-invw, to make Piirli, Tar.
(ilasse, Millcs, ;nxl Sope ashes, when llie (onntn is replen-
ished with people, and necessaries, would liaue done well,
hut to send thcni and seaurnlie more without vjetualls to
worke. was not so well aduised nor considered of. as it should
i'e were- l.iO that wanted lor our seines.
For we h;ul the Salvages in that i/rrorum (their harvest be-
irn: newly gathered,) that, we feared not to art victuals for
Page 193— "The Discoveries and Accidents."
■ — i
Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they
could perswade to goe with them, that neuer did know
what a dayes worke was: except the D«ic/z-men and Poles,
and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentle-
%■■ ~" n Tr.irllelsmen. Servine-men. libertines, and such lilr»>
Page 434 — Edward Arber's "Travels and Works of Capl. Smith."
With some intermissions the manufacture of
wood products by the Poles in Virginia lasted till
about 1622. The massacre of that year, in which
some Poles also perished, was a fatal stroke to its
Poles save Captain Smith's life. — The Virginia
Poles distinguished themselves also as soldiers.
The first instance of their bravery is recorded in
1609 ; when the Indians set an ambush to kill Cap-
tain Smith the Poles saved his life and captured
an Indian Chief. In 1616, during Governor Yeard-
ley's administration, a "Robert a Polonian" dis-
tinguished himself in an expedition against the
Pioneers of American liberty. — In 1619, during
the second administration of Governor Yeardley,
a limited autonomy was introduced in tlhie colony.
On July 30th, the first legislative assembly on
the American continent met at Jamestown. How-
ever, some of the inhabitants were denied the
right to representation. Among the disfranchised
were the Poles, and this made them so indignant,
that they decided to cease working till the in-
justice would be removed. This was the first
strike in the history of the United States.
The dispute assumed such proportions that
Yeardley was forced to report it to the Council
at London. The Poles won in the end.
The records of the Company mention under the
date of July 3rd. 1619:
"Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident
in Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding
any former order to the contrary) that they shall
be enfranchised and made as free as any inhabit-
ant there whatsoever: and because their skill in
making pitch and tar and soap ashes shall not die
with them, it is agreed that some young men shall
be put unto them to learn their skill and know-
ledge therein for tihe benefit of the country here-
This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not
for economical advantages, but for political rights,
may be justly regarded as the first struggle and
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this
*Wachtl, quoting Wiesci Polskie, published in London
in 1831, lists the following Polish pioneers, who arrived
in Jamestown in October, 1608: — Michal Lowicki, Zbi-
gniew Stefanski, Jan Mata, Stanislaw Sadowski, Karol
Zrenica and Jan Bogdan. The evidence, supporting this
list, however, appears to be of a presumptive type and
is not yet based on ascertained facts. More research in
this field is needed.
Recalls Aid To
Colony By Poles
Cites Testimony by Capt. Smith
in His Book
By THOMAS E. KISSL1NG
(Reprinted from The Monitor)
First factory in United States, 1608: Festivities
at Jamestown, Va., commemorating the 350th
anniversary of the founding of the 1st permanent
English settlement there in 1607 recall the fact
that artisans* from Catholic Poland operated a
glassworks there in 1608, the first factory in
America. During the year's festival celebration,
members of the American Flint Glassworkers Un-
ion, dressed in costumes of 17th century crafts-
men, will demonstrate how the glass was made.
Jamestown, Va.: The arrival in Virginia of
artisans in 1608 from Catholic Poland saved from
failure the first permanent English settlement in
This is the testimony of the leader of the colo-
nists, Capt. John Smith, recorded in a book pub-
lished in London in 1630, The True Travels, Ad-
ventures, and Observations of Capt. John Smith.
The colony was founded at Jamestown in 1607,
by the Virginia Company of London, chartered by
James I, and financed in part by lotteries. It was
hoped that the colonists would soon be sending
back to England imports badly needed for her
However, the "gentlemen adventurers" who ac-
companied Captain Smith on the first voyage were
more interested in searching for gold. They prov-
ed unequal to the tough job of chopping out
wilderness, and fighting off the Indians. With
food and other supplies dwindling, Smith besought
his backers in London to send him some car-
penters, blacksmiths, masons, and other artisans.
Arriving with the second supply, aboard the
40-ton ship God Speed, in October 1608, were
"'Dutchmen and Poles," some of whom were glass-
makers and carpenters, recruited by the London
Co. in Germany and Poland.
jeing done according to our direction, the Captaine.
gave the word, and wee presently discharged, wherel
twelve lay, some dead, the rest for life sprawling on the'
ground, twelve more we tooke prisoners, two whereof
were brothers, two of their eight Elders, the one tooke |
by Sergeant Boothe, the other by Robert a Polonian ;
\JJ fX C T"»f»* r *»v* » ca
rmlHiPrc tnr fX rPWQtV
Page 234— "The Generall Hislorie of Virginia," Vol.
The Poles, the first to come to America, were
engaged as artisans and instructors in the manu-
facture of glass, pitch, tar, soap ashes, and other
They immediately set to work and within 3
weeks had a roaring fire going under a glass fur-
nace. This was the first factory in America. Within
a short time samples of their work, presumably
the green glass bottles and vases of that period,
were sent back to England. These were the first
"Made in America" items snipped abroad.
The exact location of the original factory was
discovered in 1931 by the late Jesse Dimmick,
owner of the land known for centuries as "Glass-
However, it was not until 1948 and 1949 that
archaeologists from the National Park Service
researched, explored, and excavated the site of
the factory. They found the remains of the fur-
naces, crucible, and pot fragments and melted
and marked pieces of glass.
These discoveries, plus study and research in
England, enabled the experts to reconstruct the
17th-century glasshouse at a cost of $100,000, the
joint project of the Jamestown Glasshouse Foun-
dation, Inc., and the National Park Service, United
States Department of the Interior.
During the Jamestown 350th Anniversary Fes-
tival glass is again manufactured here. The demon-
strators, dressed in costumes of the 17th century,
are members of the American Flint Glass Workers'
Union, who also contributed generously to financ-
ing the project.
Some of the Poles were also engaged in the
early years in the manufacture of clapboards and
other wood products, whicn were shipped back
to England. Others served as soldiers.
In 1609 it was recorded that when the Indians
set an ambush to kill Captain Smith, the Poles
saved his life and captured an Indian chief. Men-
tion is also made of "Robert, a Polonian" who in
1616 during Governor Yeardley's administration
distinguished himself against the Indians.
Capacity For Hard Work
There is no mention in the records of the Vir-
ginia Company that these first Poles to come to
America took the oath of supremacy and allegiance
to the King and Church of England, which called
for repudiation of the Pope and See of Rome.
Skilled craftsmen and artisans were so badly
needed and so difficult to recruit it is doubtful
that they were required to take the oath usually
administered to the colonists. It is not disclosed in
the official records of the colony that those among
them who were Catholic remained Catholic or
had their spiritual needs provided for.
Imbued with a capacity for hard work, the Poles
also had a flaming love for freedom. It was they
who struck the first blow for civil liberty in
America. In 1619 when a limited autonomy was
introduced into the colony, the first legislative as-
sembly on the American continent met at James-
town. The Poles, along with some others, were
denied the right to vote because they were in-
dentured for the cost of their voyage.
They were so indignant that they refused to
work in the glasshouse until they were enfran-
chised. And thus began the first strike in the
history of the United States.
The matter was of such importance that Gov-
ernor Yeardley reported it to the Council in Lon-
don. A manuscript in the Library of Congress
shows that the Poles won the strike for their polit-
ical rights. Under date of July 3, 1619, the Court
Book of the Virginia Company of London (vol. I, p.
32) records that the "Polonaise resident in Vir-
ginia" are now "enfranchised and made as free as
any inhabitant there whatsoever." And this was
their victory for equal suffrage in America.
References to the Jamestown Poles and to Poland
are also made in the following publications:
Dr. Andrew Bode: — Fyrst Booke of the Introduction to
knowledge, London, 1542.
A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie in
Virginia, London, 1610.
Records of American Catholic Historical Society, Vol.
Maud Sellers: — The Acts and Ordinances of the East-
land Company, London, 1906.
Alexander Brown: — The Genesis of the United States,
Lyon Gardiner: — The Cradle of the Republic, Rich-
mond, Va., 1900.
Conway Whittle Sams: — The Conquest of Virginia.
The Second Attempt, Norfolk, Va., 1929.
Edward Eggleston:— The Beginners of a Nation, New
KING ZYGMUNT III OF POLAND, 1587-1632
(See preface; also footnote on page 16)
WLADISLAV5 SIGISMVN T DV5 DG.POLON1/E ET SVECI/E PRFNCEPS
ELECT MAGN. DVX MGSCOVEfi SMOL. SEVER. GfRD. DVX. « » r^^-
KING WLADYSLAW IV OF POLAND, 1632-1648
(See footnote on page 16)
"I Want to Greet You — the Descendants
of Our Early Settlers in the New World"
An Address by A. D. Chandler,
President of the College of
William and Mary
(Delivered at Jamestown Observance, October 18, 1953—
the 345th anniversary of the landing of Poles in America)
If I were to fail to say at the outset that I am
honored to have the privilege to participate in this
ceremony, I would be less than truthful. I want
to thank you and your president for inviting me.
I want to greet you— the descendants of our
early settlers in the New World.
This area has long been renowned for keeping
alive the heritage of Virginia and the nation. The
college which I serve has been distinguished for
its alumni who played a leading role in the
making of the nation and in the education of our
youth, Jefferson, one of our alumni, founded the
University of Virginia. I could list innumerable
alumni who made the heritage of this great nation
and who played and are playing a dynamic role
in keeping it alive.
We in Virginia feel that Jamestown is hallowed
ground because this area is the monument to the
spreading of the European influence in America.
Not far from where we meet today, there was
established three hundred and forty five years ago,
the first industry in what is now the United States
The First Seeds
We are all here to commemorate that event,
and to honor the memories of the five men from
Poland who planted the first seeds from which
has grown the greatest industrial nation under
Jamestown was founded in 1607, two years be-
fore this historical event. The first settlers were,
in the main, a band of gentlemen adventurers
lured here by the myth that the shores of the New
World were strewn with gold. It took the example
of the Polish glass makers to demonstrate to the
colonists that the treasures of Virginia were in
its soil, not nuggets to be had for picking.
Need Of Stout Hearts
There was ample wealth, but it required strong
arms, stout hearts, and technical knowledge to
convert it into coin.
Only thirty-two of the original band of one
hundred and five settlers survived the first two
winters in Virginia. When the second group ar-
rived with seventy recruits for the new colony,
Captain John Smith warmly welcomed the five
Polish artisans among them, not only because they
were what Jamestown most needed — skilled work-
men — but because he knew them as representa-
tives of a sturdy, industrious, liberty loving nation.
John Smith had reason to respect and admire
the Poles. Only a few years before, in Christian
Europe's wars with the infidels, he had been cap-
tured by the Turks and led into slavery. All of
Southeastern Europe was then held by the Mo-
hammedans and the first Christian sanctuary the
fugitive found was in Poland. In the book he
later wrote, called The True Travels, John Smith
describes how he crossed Poland, aided every foot
of the way by the people unmatched in his experi-
ence for, as he said it, "Respect, Mirth, Content
and Entertainment," who insisted on loading him
with gifts before sending him on to the next town.
These first Polish settlers to America soon prov-
ed Smith's confidence. Allotted a tract of land
about one 'mile from the fort, which was the only
building — -they immediately set to work to build
their little factory. When the English ship was
ready to sail back across the Atlantic, it carried
a full line of samples which the glass-makers were
prepared to turn out in commercial quantities,
as well as a cargo of pitch, or tar, distilled from
Virginia's pine trees, and other products of the
field and forest which the so-called "Polonians"
These five men proved to be such an asset to
the first English colony that more of their fellow
countrymen were invited to settle here. In a few
years fifty Poles were living in Jamestown. As
was the custom then, almost all of the colonists
worked out their passage by pledging themselves
to work for the company which owned the settle-
ment. Thus, in from two to three years, the im-
migrant's labor had repaid the company for the
passage by ship from Europe, and they duly
became free citizens of the community.
Love Of Freedom
That brings us to another first event in America,
the first blow for civil liberty and the right to
citizenship on equal terms, which the Polish
colony, in the Virginia of three centuries ago,
In the year 1619 the Jamestown colony was
granted a form of self-government by the London
company. That was a memorable year for the thriv-
ing little colony, destined within three years to be
all but wiped out in an Indian, massacre. In 1619
a shipload of women arrived, women who were
willing to brave the hard life on the frontiers of
a new country just to get husbands. There wasn't
one who was not on her honeymoon before sunset
on the day of their landing.
I wonder how many of the young women, who
complain today how hard it is to catch a husband,
would take the same gamble?
At any rate, as history reveals, the Jamestown
colony was then divided into boroughs, boroughs
in which every man who had worked up his in-
debtedness to the London company was given the
right to vote. Every man, that is, except the half-a-
hundred Poles, who incidentally, monopolized the
industries of Jamestown. The British colonists, de-
pendent as they were on their Polish fellowsettlers,
arbitrarily decided that citizenship should be a
privilege reserved for their own special group.
The same undemocratic spirit, unfortunately,
still survives to much in the world today. Too
many persons, who falsely think themselves "the
best kind of American, sometimes look down on
their fellow citizens, forgetting that all the people
in America, who are not Indians, are descendants
of immigrants, whether they came here 300 or 30
Well, the Polish colonists in Virginia protested.
They said they were as good Americans as any
of the rest who came to America with them or
even later. When their protests were ignored
they said. "Okey" (for however you say it in
Polish) no citizenship, no work."
Not Exactly A Strike
So they closed down the glass factory, the tar
distillery, the soap works and spent their days
fishing and dancing the polka.
Perhaps you could call it the first strike in
America, except that the Polonians were not
quitting work on an employer. They shut down
their own industries. Except for the few pounds
of tobacco the colonists were beginning to ex-
port, practically all of the profits realized by
the London Company came from the re-sale of
the products of the Polish industries. The James-
town government quickly realized that if it sent
empty ships back to England, the consequences
could be very unpleasant.
And so, members of the Jamestown General As-
sembly quickly declared their Polish fellow —
colonists to have full citizenship with every right
of the vote and equal representation. Thereafter
the community prospered in peace and unity. The
colony grew far beyond the borders of the little
point of land where the first colonists had built
their log fort and crude glass factory, despite bitter
factional quarrels between, what we would call,
rival political machines.
Then, in March 1622, the Indians of this region,
alatrmed at the spread of the pale-faces, rose and
massacred more than 300 of the colonists and
burned farm houses and factories. It was a blow
from which Jamestown never recovered. The
London Company went into bankruptcy, and
other settlements in Virginia soon outstripped the
first colony. Later, Jamestown was the ruin, it
appears to be today. Jamestown is a monument
to the thrift, the industry, the courage and the
love of liberty, of those earliest of our colonists.
These virtues were exemplified by the Poles in
That monument can never be ruined. Every
passing year will see it grow greater and brighter.
In the centuries succeeding the establishment of
Jamestown, hundreds of thousands of Poles have
followed the footsteps of these first immigrants,
to weave into the fabric of America the industry,
the poetry, the music, the arts and the sciences,
which Poland has contributed to the welfare of
the world since history began. Pulaski and Ko-
sciuszko today are names as American as Jefferson,
Adams and Hamilton.
Let us pray that the Polish spirit which has
helped America become great, will some day very
soon free the mother country from the slavery
imposed upon it by the monster, Communism.
Frankly Speaking . . .
By BILL FRANK
Most of us think that anyone with a name ending
in "ski" is of a generation of newcomers, fresh
from the old country.
And a lot of people also assume that anyone
with a name that has a combination of "z" and "c"
is of parentage that came to this country in the
steerage of huge ocean liners filled with im-
migrants from mid-Europe.
But it's high time we came to realize that the
people with names ending in "ski" have been in
this country as long as the Smiths and the Jeffer-
sons, the Randolphs and the others with more pro-
Too Little About Poles
I guess a great deal of what we know about
peoples in American history depends upon how
well certain historians have popularized certain
Up until now, there's been too little published
about the contributions of the Poles, for example.
The average American, I'm sure, has an idea
that the Poles in our country came here along
about the 1880s or soon after that . . . and the im-
migration from Poland was stepped up in the early
part of the 20th Century.
Also, the same average American thinks that
the only Poles who ever made any contribution
to this country before the last decade of the 19th
Century were Kosciuszko and Pulaski.
I certainly don't want to depreciate the valiant
services these two noted Poles gave to these
United States — particularly Pulaski, who died
for the young democracy.
But now along comes Vincent J. Kowalewski,
of the Polish American Congress in Delaware, and
sends me a brochure that has opened my eyes.
Another John Smith Story
Every American school kid knows that an Indian
girl, Pocahontas, saved the life of the fabulous
Capt. John Smith but —
How many know that two Poles, Zbigniew Ste-
fanski and Jan Bogdan, also saved the life of the
intrepid captain when he was about to be ambush-
ed by Indians?
We read a great deal about the first families of
Virginia, etc., but not enough about those first
Poles who helped to save Jamestown from total
They Were Skilled Craftsmen
Let's go back a little in American history and
pause at the year 1607.
That was the year when Jamestown was found-
ed by the Virginia Company of London.
The newcomers were faced with all kinds of
problems in the new world. They especially need-
ed skilled craftsmen, whose services were essential
to the survival of the colony.
Where to get them?
The Englishmen remembered that for years
Poland had been England's principal source of
pitch, tar, rosin, flax, masts, wainscots, and glass.
England Turns To Poland
There England could enlist the craftsmen for
the great adventure in the new world.
And so on Oct. 1, 1608 — 350 years ago — the ship
Mary and Margaret arrived in Jamestown with a
company of Poles. The roster contained such
names as Michael Nowicki, Stanislaw Sadowski,
Jan Mata — all journeymen in the crafts that were
badly needed. And they were soldiers, too, good
Within three weeks after the Poles arrived in
Jamestown, things began to hum. A glass furnace
was roaring— the first factory in America.
And within two months, the ship Mary and
Margaret was on its way to England with Ameri-
can-made materials — the first export of manu-
factured goods — soap ashes, tar, pitch, green glass
bottles and vases.
The Big Strike
Later, other Poles arrived. They were dreamers,
too, and adventurers, in a way — but they also had
a very practical outlook on life. The romantic
stories of early America just never gave them a
Then came the big strike for civil liberties.
Fed up with the finagling in the colony of
Jamestown, Captain John Smith decided to re-
turn to England. The Poles refused to stay behind.
They'd have none of the shenanigans.
They went to London but not for long. The
Virginia Company implored them to return to
Jamestown and help the colonists attain industrial
self-sufficiency. Reluctantly, the Poles agreed but
on one major condition: There were to be more
rights for the people.
Everything went along all right until they were
denied the right to vote for members of the legis-
And the reason?
A flimsy and vicious one.
It was said that the Poles couldn't vote because
they were still in debt for their passage from
England to America.
All right — so the Poles just went on s
They stopped working in the glass factory.
Gov. George Yeardley tried to reason with the
Poles — but he probably never bumped up against
the dogged stubbornness of Poles sticking up for
what they believe are their rights. Some of the
most infamous dictators of Europe have had apples
out of that barrel, even in our day.
The Strike Ends
The whole mess became a first class stench
that seeped over to England, and eventually it
was decided that "concessions be made to the
Polanders" — and the strike was ended.
The first strike in America — not for economic
gains but for civil liberty!
All this and a lot more about the contributions
of Polish craftsmen and workers are to be found
in the dusty annals of American history, hidden
far too long.
It is most refreshing to learn that Poles all over
the United States are going to observe the 350th
anniversary of the arrival of the first Polish im-
migrants to these shores.
It should knock the theory that Poles are "fur-
riners" into a cocked hat.
In the year 1600, it is estimated that the total
native (Indian) population of Virginia was about
20,000. Of that number, some 2,000 descendants,
mostly mixed bloods, are living- today. Of these,
the Chickahominy and the Pamunkey still retain
some vestiges of their tribal organization — the
last visible remnant of the once proud Powhatan
—Matthew W. Stirling
IJisit ^America s
MARCH 31st TO DECEMBER ist, 1958
1 QS8 marl<s tne 3S°th Anniversary of GLASS
•*■ 7»JO manufacturing in America. And, the
chief anniversary exhibit is the replica of the First
Glass Factory, originally built in i<o8 by Virginia
Colonists at Glasshouse Point, near Jamestown. In
fact, GLASS was the First industry to be establish-
ed in this country.
The remains of the original factory were first
discovered in 1931. With the invaluable aid of
National Park Service archaeologists, an exact
reconstruction of the factory was recently completed
by the Jamestown Glasshouse Foundation and the
National Park Service, in Colonial National His-
torical Park, adjoining the Jamestown Festival
Last year, the attendance of hundreds of thou-
sands of people from all parts of the United States,
proved the exhibit to be one of the high points of
the Festival. The response was so overwhelming
that during 1958 the Glasshouse is again
OPEN from March 31st until December ist
DAILY from 10 a. m. to 5:30 p. m.
You will see glassworkers costumed in authen-
tic colonial garb, working with the tools and in the
manner of the period. Their handcrafted glass
products are illustrative of the time-tested skills
required in the Glass Industry, both in the past
and the present.
Invest a small amount of time and you and
your family can step into a World of History-
Come-Alive. You will find this exhibit unique,
imaginative, educational. Make plans NOW . . .
See GLASS made at the only 17th Century operat-
ing glasshouse in the world.
Sponsored by the
JAMESTOWN GLASSHOUSE FOUNDATION
A Non-Piofil Organization of
America's Leading Class Producers
; ^ j
F7V5/ meeting of Virginia's General Assembly in a Jamestown church in 1619.
Universal Suffrage Was The
Primary Motive Of The Strike
HON. FRANK C. OSMERS
in Ihe House of Representalives
Amorugi the passengers were a handful of
strong, rugged artisans, who along with Capt.
Smith, labored in the woods with their axes,
making a clearing and setting up the first fac-
tories in the new world. To this group Smith later
gave credit for saving the colony of Jamestown
and in effect for insuring that America would
develop as an English-speaking nation. Yet oddly-
enough, these artisans were not Englishmen, but
were the earliest Polish immigrants to this coun-
A few years later the Poles set another pre-
cedent in their adopted land. At the time of the
election in Virginia of the first legislative body
in America, only natives of England were to be
allowed to vote. With justifiable indignance, the
Poles successfully staged America's first strike —
laying down their tools until they were granted
full equality with the other colonists. Economic
gain was not the primary motive, but rather the
establishment of the principle of universal suf-
The number of Poles in our country and their
American-born descendants have grown rapidly
from the small handful of artisans in Jamestown.
Today they total nearly seven million.
But the essential character of these people has
never changed. Endowed with an astounding ca-
pacity for hard work and a love for freedom that
has been denied to them in the mother-land Po-
lish immigrants have chosen to join others in
their fight for independence. In the American
Revolution, for example, the muster rolls of the
Continental Army reveal at least a thousand
"ski's" and wicz's" -and other unmistakably Po-
lish immigrants have chosen to join others in
young volunteers, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Casi-
mir Pulaski. Beth possessed a love of liberty
knowing' no national borders, and saw America's
struggle for freedom as their own. Kosciuszko
was the first foreign officer to arrive here, sailing
at his own expense to offer his services to Gene-
ral Washington even before the Declaration of
Independence had been signed.
Virginia* New -England, an&lne ftummtT lies,
THE NAMES OF THE ADVENTURERS, PLANTERS, AM»
(iOVERNOl l>'S FROM THEIR FIRST KEl.lNNlNO,
AN. 1584. TO THIS PRESENT 1626
WIT J I
OF THOSE SEVERAL!. COLONIES \ND Till \< < IDENT«
THAT BEFELL THEM IN \ll Tllilll; IOI RN\E<*
AND OIS<;o\ KRIES,
TIIK MAPS AM) DESCRIPTIONS
•1 rtlOSE COUJfTRYES, TIIFin < .•vmwih m s. I'KwiTi UOVEKNMEM CUSTOMS"
AM' KEL1UION V i.l" ivViWNh
DIVIDED INTO SIM: BOOKED.
By CAPTAINE rOHN SMITH.
««<ai ETYJBE8 COVERNOUR OF THOSE COl'STf: VES ANO-Al>MliiALL OK N'EW KNOJLASij*
FROM THE London Flu Hon (»F Mr! 1
fttpubhshu' -it mi y i tijiin pce.»B
WilHnia W linn I'rintd
1 H I 9.
Gratefully We Acknowledge
It is a high privilege to bear witness to the
blood. Gratefully we acknowledge the services of
Pulaski and Kosciuszko — whose very names are
of the imperishable record of American indepen
women of Polish blood, who have united their d
days of Colonial settlement; in the war to attain
emerged our national unity; in the great journe
the Pacific; on farms or in town or city — thro
contribution to the upbuilding of our institutions
(Excerpts from an address of Franklin Del
on the occasion of reinterment of remains
National Cemetery, October 11, 1937).
debt which this country owes to men of Polish
those intrepid champions of human freedom —
watchwords of liberty and whose deeds are part
dence . . . They and the millions of other men and
estinies with those of America — whether in the
independence ; in the hard struggle out of which
yings across the Western Plains to the slopes of
ugh all of our history they have made their full
and to the fulfillment of our national life.
ano Roosevelt, President of the United States,
of General Wladimir Krzyzanowski at Arlington
The 350th Anniversary
HON. DANIEL J. FLOOD
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Mr. FLOOD. Mr. Speaker, the earliest Polish
settlers in this country arrived in October 1608
in Jamestown, Va., just 1 year after the founding
of this historic town. That is the first landmark
of Poles in America, and I am indeed glad that
its 350th anniversary is being celebrated this
We do not know with certainty how many Poles
were in that immigrant first group ; probably they
were not more than a handful. It is said that they
were brought here "as experts and instructors
in the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and
other products" which Poland exported to Eng-
land in those days. Near Jamestown they built
a glass furnace, and in a short time they were
able to send to England the first samples of their
work ; these were the first products of American
industry. Thus the earliest Polish settlers in
America were artisans and technicians, and as
such they contributed greatly to the birth and
growth of certain industries here even in those
The Poles also distinguished tihemselves as
brave soldiers. Their descendants have turned out
to be among the best and bravest fighters in de-
fense of this country. It is stated that the first
instance of their bravery in America is recorded
in the year 1609. In that year when the Indians
had set an ambush to kill Capt. John Smith, it was
a group of Poles who saved his life. But the darinig,
bravery, and their devotion to the cause of free-
dom and independence was fully demonstrated
in our Revolutionary War. It is hardly necessary
to narrate in detail the deeds and accomplishment
of Thaddeus Kosciusko and Casimir Pulaski, the
bravest and most illustrious of Poles whose noble
deeds are enshrined in the annals of this country.
In a sense we can hardly do as much for Poland
as these two Poles did for America during her
fight for independence.
Thus long before the independence of this coun-
try, and ever since then, the Poles have been very
active in their constructive work. Today many
million Americans of Polish descent are among
our most patriotic, public-spirited, and loyal citi-
zens. They have, in the course of their long his-
tory here, contributed immensely, and in many
instances with great distinction, to our civiliza-
tion. I am extremely glad and proud to participate
in this historic celebration, the 350th anniversary
of the first Polish settlement in America.
EXCAVATIONS AT JAMES-
TOWN IN 1955
THE FOUNDATIONS OF
THE FIRST STATEHOUSE
Men And Women Of Polish Blood
Contributed Their Toil And Talents
HON. CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI
in the House of Representatives
It is proper and fruitful for us to engage in
such commemorations. They give us a better un-
derstanding of our heritage, and they help us to
appreciate the principles which should guide us
in our endeavors through the years to come,
I am particularly pleased that we have this
opportunity to recall the part which people of
Polish ancestry have played in the early history
of America, and of our Nation.
In our daily activities we come in contact with
many persons bearing! Polish names who came
to the United States during the last 50 or 70 years.
The majority of Americans of Polish ancestry
probably belong to that group: the group consist-
ing of first-and second-generation Americans.
This should not be taken to indicate that the
participation of immigrants from Poland in the
growth and development of the United States is
confined to the last few generations. The very
opposite is the case. The entire history of our
Nation, and the record of the early colonization
of the New World, contain ample evidence that
men and women of Polish blood contributed their
toil and talents to the settlement of North Ameri-
ca, and to the birth and development of our great
We should remember this fact and, to this end,
our thoughts turn today to the small British sail-
ing vessel, named Mary and Margaret, which
crossed the Atlantic Ocean and docked in James-
town, Va., 350 years ago.
Aboard this ship, whichi was bringing provisions
and settlers to Jamestown, were five Poles, spe-
cialists in industry, who came to the New World
to lend their talents, and their energies, to the
task of developing the American Continent.
From old records we have learned that these
five Polish experts built the first glass, furnace
on the American continent, organized the produc-
tion of soap, pitdh, clapboards, and other build-
ing materials, and contributed greatly to the suc-
cess of the early English colony at Jamestown.
These facts should be remembered by all of us,
and we should take pride in them. We should be
equally proud of the countless other men and wo-
men who came to this land from Poland in the
decades and centuries that followed the settle-
ment at Jamestown, helped to conquer the wilder-
ness, and to build the American Nation upon
The names of many of those men and women
are long forgotten, but the fruits of their lobors
are here for all of us to enjoy. They are a part
of our great American heritage.
Our heritage is made up of many things— of
customs and traditions brought here from other
lands, of the political and social institutions which
were born abroad and developed here, and of the
material progress which our Nation has achieved
through the rare blending of our natural resour-
ces with the know how and energy expanded in
As we consider our way of life, we become
aware of the extent to which our institutions
are modeled after principles developed long ago
in Europe. Many of the immigrants brought to
this land not only their meager personal belong-
ings, their skills and their trades, but also their
personal experience with social and political in-
stitutions. All this enriched our society, and fa-
cilitated the progress of our Republic.
In thinking about these matters, we recall Po-
land's ancient parliamentary tradition, and Po-
land's famous constitution of May 3, 1791.
That constitution, adopted peacefully by the
Polish nation while their country was faced with
a deadly threat to its freedom and independence,
stands even today as a model of a liberal, parlia-
These, then, are some of the contributions which
people of Polish ancestry made to the progress
of this Nation. They date back to the landing
of the small group of Poles at Jamestown 350
years ago, and they have continued ever since.
They include the efforts that our people spent
in the new world, in fighting for American inde-
pendence, and in developing the natural- resources
of this land. They also include the customs and
traditions which they brought here, as well as
the achievements of Poles on other continents
which had a constructive impact on our own way
We should be justly proud of these things. And
we should also remember that the success of the
United States has been due in no small measure
to the farsighted, liberal policies that our Nation
has followed in welcoming people, ideas, and ca-
pital from other lands.
Statue of Capt. John Smith at Jamestown
Three Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary
of Polish Pioneers in America
EXTENSION OF REMARKS
HON. THOMAS J. LANE
In The House of Representatives
Mr. Lane. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to bring
to the attention of the Congress, a little-known
but important event in our history.
It was in October 1, 1608 that the first Polish
pioneers came ashore at Jamestown, Va., more
than 12 years before the Mayflower brought the
Pilgrims to Massachusetts.
Capt. John Smith, founder of the Virginia settle-
ment, had visited Poland before setting out for
America. He was impressed by the skill, the
industry, and the reliability of the Polish people.
When the new colony at Jamestown was threat-
ened with failure, he sent an urgent plea to Eng-
land for Polish workers. They came, and 1 estab-
lished the first actual factory in the new world.
From that day to this, succeeding waves of Pol-
ish immigrants have taken part in the building
of the United States.
Our development and progress as a (free nation
owes much to their character and ability. The
spirit of these fine citizens is summed up in the
old Polish saying: "A Pole shall never be a serf."
God-fearing and devoted to freedom, they have
made contributions to our way of life that should
be known and honored.
For this purpose I ask unanimous consent to
insert in the Congressional Record the illuminat-
ing document titled "Americans From Poland"
that was originally published by the Polish Wom-
en's Alliance of America.
It will be a well-merited recognition of the
350th anniversary commemorating the arrival of
the Polish pioneers in America:
Americans From Poland *
The story of immigrants in America — one of the
greatest stories ever written — shows how the
many people of many lands helped build the
greatest nation on earth. It is mainly a chronicle
of common people, common but honorable, and
* Prepared in a tableau form by Roman PucLnski,
president of the Illinois Division, Polish American
always dedicated to the principle that man was
created by the Almighty to be free.
Perhaps one of the most interesting chapters
in this great chronicle of America's immigrants
is to be written about those who have migrated
here from Poland.. For from the very first days
of this rich nation's struggle for independence and
progress, the Poles have left their names imprinted
on the indelible sands of time.
It is impossible to enumerate all of the nameless
and fearless Polish pioneers who came to America,
toiling endlessly, clearing away forests, laboring
the virgin soil, withstanding brutal Indian attacks
and massacres, struggling and praying that their
efforts could in part contribute to a rebirth of
faith in the dignity of man on these barren shores
of a new land in the Western Hemisphere.
Yes, among the millions of pages of American
history written by the great — and not so great —
the dauntless spirit of Polish immigrants can al-
ways be found. They came here to pave the way
for the future economic and cultural development
of the United States.
It would be difficult for us today to mention
even all of those Poles in America who have risen
above the anonymous crowd and left indelible
traces of their activity in the United States. Time
would not permit a chronicling of their events, for
there are tens of thousands of dedicated Poles
who during the past 350 years came here as fear-
less trappers, brave soldiers and great pioneers of
This booklet is by no means intended to present
the full story of Poles in America, for the full
story has yet to be written. Instead, we hope
through this simple booklet to arouse curiosity to
whet the appetite of historians and to inspire
among our students of history a rebirth of deter-
mination toward chronicling a more detailed
story of Poles in America. It is a beautiful story —
a rich story — a story of a gallant people whose
brave deeds reach down into the very roots of
Better Understanding Of Our Heritage
We hope also that the young, and the old, will
have a better understanding of their own heritage
as Americans of Polish descent. It is our earnest
hope that during this great jubilee year observing
the 350th anniversary of the arrival of Poles in
America, all Americans will better understand
that their neighbors of Polisn ancestry are not a
new phenomenon in this country, that they are
not a foreign element which only in recent years
JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT Jr^3
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has found expression, but that Poles have played
an integral part in the very birth of these great
United States and have contributed to their
growth and progress for generations dating back
If through these efforts we succeed in doing
nothing more than getting all Americans to under-
stand better the very stimulating history of Poles
in America, we shall consider this jubilee year a
huge success. We shall try — through the cold
pages of history — to bring warmth into your
Jan z Kolna
Some of the writers who have tried to tell the
story of Poles in America actually go back to 1475,
17 years before Christopher Columbus discovered
America. That year one Jan z Kolna, a Polish
seafarer and explorer in the service of the King
of Denmark, was supposed to have bumped into
Labrador and then sailed down to the mouth
of the Delaware River. But scholars find no
convincing proof of this extraordinary voyage,
about which there is a persistent tradition in Pol-
ish lore. We will have to leave to more persistent
research the task of proving more convincingly
whether Jan z Kolna did in fact first discover
Our jubilee year begins with the first landing
of Poles in Jamestown in 1608. For here we are
on firm historical ground. The indisputable per-
sonal diaries of Capt. John Smith — founder of
the Virginia settlement at the very birth of the
17th century — duly record the contributions of
Polish immigrants in establishing the infant col-
ony's first industry.
Capt. John Smith Asked For Polish Workers
An orphan and pretty much on his own since
early childhood, Captain Smith had traveled ex-
tensively through Europe. During his many jour-
neys, he had visited Poland and learned firsthand
of the industrious nature of the Polish people. He
had marveled at their skills in lumbering, wood
carving, glass making, and the production of tar
and pitch — a sticky substance made from the by-
products of tar and used for roofing and water-
proofing buildings. Shortly after his arrival here
in 1607, with a group of vagabond gentlemen,
wearing silk and shunning work, Captain Smith
quickly realized that without skilled workers the
newly formed colony could not long survive. Smith
sent urgent pleas to his home office in England
to send him workers, particularly Poles because
there were large tar and pitch swamps within
a stone's throw of the new Jamestown colony.
Smith recalled how industrious the Poles were.
It is no surprise, then, that when he found him-
self in difficulty, he turned to the Poles.
The first group of Poles arrived October 1, 1608.
As they made their way up the shore from the
ships that brought them through a treacherous
voyage from England, their voices rang out with
song and joy — they had come to the promised
land, where even the air had a new breath of
While some historians attempt to list the first
group of Poles who landed in Jamestown by name,
intensive research on our own has failed to con-
firm these names. It is for this reason, therefore,
that we shall satisfy ourselves for the time being
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Replica of Fort James
with Captain Smith's own references to the Po-
lonians — as he called them — without resorting to
their respective names.
Captain Smith lost no time in putting them to
work, and he duly credits them with starting
the first actual factory in America — a glass works
near Jamestown, Va. Today, in that historic
American shrine, stands a replica of this first
American industry manned by the skillful Poles.
Poles Receive Credit
In his memories Captain Smith credits the Poles
with saving the economy of the infant colony.
But after he left the colony, the early English
settlers regarded the Poles, and other European
laborers as foreigners and inferiors. They were
in the community, helping it to survive, but they
were not considered of it.
For 12 yeans, while the settlement swung
between success and failure, the Poles worked
hard at their jobs, but they were barred from
participating in civil affairs and had no political
rights. While actually helping the young colony
survive these Poles were in effect little better
than serfs. This intolerable situation brought
violent reactions from the Poles. For there is an
old Polish saying which has survived as the very
battle cry of Poles since the birth of their brave
nation 1,000 years ago — "Polak nie Sluga" — "A
Pole shall never be a serf." By 1619, their pride
spilled over and the Poles, yearning for equality,
went on strike — the first strike ever staged in
the New World.
It is significant, perhaps more significant than
would be immediately discernable, that this first
strike was not staged by the Poles for economic
gains. Instead, they demanded the right to vote,
full equality with the others, and the right to
own property. In the tiny community, this was
equivalent to a major rebellion. It was the first
political upheaval in America, for the purpose
of extending democratic rights to the common
man. Here was the first manifestation that Amer-
ica shall be a heaven for the oppressed, a sanctuary
for the free, and a bastion against the tyranny of
The future of the Virginia colony — and perhaps
the future of America — swung on the outcome of
this strike. We know too little yet about how
the strike was handled but it is safe to assume
that the leading people of Jamestown realized
that the community could not survive very long
without the good-will of their most skilled work-
ers. The strike was quickly brought to a suc-
cessful conclusion. The Poles' grievances were
heeded by the first parliament in America, the
House of Burgess in Jamestown. According to the
contemporary record, "it was agreed that the
Poles shall be enfranchised and made as free as
any inhabitants there whatsoever." In order to
perpetuate the Poles' techniques in making pitch,
tar, and glass, it was further agreed that "some
young men shall be put unto them to learn their
skill and knowledge therein, for the benefit of the
Who, then, is to say today what course the newly
born nation on the eastern shores of America
would have taken if not for the gallant action of
these determined Poles. We see from the record
that the early colonists — the aristocracy which
first came here with Captain Smith- — had every
intention of recreating in America the very system
of vested gentry and castes which the common
man had left Europe to escape. It cannot be
emphasized too strongly that perhaps the very
essence of our democratic system, as we in Amer-
ica know it today, may never have been realized
if not for the dogged determination of these early
Polish immigrants. No measure of praise or glory
can adequately describe their unselfish contribu-
tion to this Nation's early beginnings, for it was
these Poles who, with their bare hands and stub-
born determination laid the very foundations
on which freedom for all men was born in America.
In the middle of the 17th century, perhaps after
hearing how valuable the Poles were to the Brit-
ish colony in Virginia, the Dutch settlers of New
Amsterdam persuaded others to come here from
Poland to help them grow food and fight the
British of New England. These immigrants were
also very hardy, industrious, effective; Gov. Peter
Stuyvesant, of New Holland, was quite pleased
First Academy Founded By Pole
In 1659, a Polish scholar, Dr. Alexander Kur-
cyusz came to New Amsterdam on the Hollander's
invitation and founded an academy, the first
institution of higher learning in what is now
New York City. In the history of American edu-
cation, he is now known as Dr. Alexander Curtius.
By 1662, an exiled Polish nobleman named
Albert Zaborowski — later known as Zabriski —
came to New Amsterdam. He later moved across
the Hudson River to New Jersey where he became
one of the first judges of the State and subse-
quently the owner of considerable land holdings
along the Passaic River. Today, the multi-billion-
dollar industrial centers of New Jersey stand on
land developed by Zaborowski. Todiay, also, some
of the elite families of the eastern seaboard —
ranking high on the list of society — number him
among their ancestors.
Poles also settled in the Delaware Valley as
early as 1650. Pennsylvania archives show them
to have been a part of that colony in the days of
its founder, William Penn. There was a thin
trickle of Poles into Pennsylvania and Virginia
for the next 100 years.
The whole world knows the legendary story
of America's famous explorer;, Daniel Boone.
Every American child has seen movies and tele-
vision shows relating his heroic exploits. But
how many of these same American youngstes
know that a Polish immigrant played perhaps the
most important part in Boone's future fame?
John Anthony Sadowski
In 1736, John Anthony Sadowski pushed into
the wilderness beyond the Allegheny Mountains.
Driven by a native curiosity, Sadowski's restless
spirit would give him no peace until he could
discover for himself what lies beyond the tower-
ing mountains. Braving the Indians and wild
beasts which roamed throughout this virgin terri-
tory—never yet visited by white men— Sadowski
pushed westward. He established an outpost on
the Ohio River which a century later became
one of America's great industrial towns — Sandus-
ky, Ohio, for that is how the great name of Sadow-
ski had been changed on English-speaking Amer-
Sadowski was killed by the Indians in Virginia.
Then his son, John, and particularly his son Jacob,
carried on the pioneering tradition of their father
and distinguished themselves as aides to Daniel
Boone in the settling of Kentucky. They were
co-founders with Boone of Harrodsburgh, the
oldest town in Kentucky. There is a passage about
their immeasurable help to Boone in Theodore
Roosevelt's book: "The Winning of the West."
Yes, history has played a cruel trick on the
Sadowski family by omitting their names from
the illustrious pinnacle it has awarded Boone
and other American explorers.
And there were many other Polish explorers
who distinguished themselves — time and again —
in America's infant days.
First Reliable Map
The first reliable map of the coast of New Eng-
land — a notable and extremely useful document
in its time — was drawn by a Polish surveyor,
Somewhere in the South, a man named Paul
Mostowski, of Warsaw, tried unsuccessfully in
1776 to found a New Poland. Scarcely anything
is known of this attempt; most likely the rebuffs
and obstacles which he had to overcome as a
would-be Colonist in the New World were too
much for him. We mention this fact only because
it indicates there must have been a sizable num-
ber of Poles in America at that time.
They played a considerable role during Amer-
ica's Revolutionary period.
The shot at Bunker Hill must have been heard
around the world for soldiers and fighters for
liberty came from several foreign countries to
the aid of the embattled revolutionaires of the
Kosciuszko: Father Of American Artillery
A young Polish engineer, Thaddeus Kosciuszko,
was among the first to arrive and offer his serv-
ices to General Washington. "What can you do?"
asked the American Commander. "Try me," said
The victory at Saratoga was credited to plans
which Kosciuszko had worked out. He fortified
Fort Ticonderoga and West Point. He was soon
made a brigadier general and chief of engineers,
but he also excelled in other branches of the
military art; in fact, he earned the title "The
Father of American Artillery." His friend, Thomas
Jefferson, then Secretary of State, said: "I see
Kosciuszko often. He is the purest son of liberty
which extends to all not alone the rich."
Kosciuszko's superior officer, General Gates,
considered him "the only pure republican. He is
without any equivocation on the subject of free-
The Indian Massacre At Falling Creek, March 22, 1622
.'/'J if i, -H.
wm p*** $ ;
Making Potash at Jamestown — About 1608
Glass Blower At Work In Reconstructed Shop
Casimir Pulaski: Hero Of Two Continents
In July 1777, another determined son of Poland
arrived at Washington's headquarters with a letter
of introduction from Benjamin iFranklin, who
represented the year-old United States of Amer-
ica in Paris. This handsome Pole was Count
Casimir Pulaski, a young Polish nobleman essen-
tially aristocratic in manner and lacking Kosciu-
szko's genuinely democratic character and per-
sonality. Franklin described Pulaski as an officer
"famous throughout Europe, for his defense of
the liberties of his country." Rising to the rank
of general, during the next 2 years— crucial ones
in the history of the American Revolution —
Pulaski participated with distinction in the Battles
of Brandywine, Warren Tavern, Germantown,
Trenton, and Haddonfield near Camden. Then
he organized his own Polish Legion, which fought
at Little Egg Harbor and Charleston. This de-
dicated apostle of freedom — the hero of two
continents — whose very name threw terror into
the hearts of tyrants — was mortally wounded
at Savannah on October 9, 1779. He died 3 days
There were thousands killed during the running
battles of the American Revolution — all dedicated
to the fundamentals of freedom. But the death
of Pulaski drove a deep void into the ranks of the
American Revolutionists. Historians agree Pulaski
had an uncanny genius for inspiring men into
battles against hopeless odds-. It was indeed this
kind of battle at Savannah that brought death to
Pulaski. But he died as he wished to die — in a
running battle for freedom. Pulaski was buried
with the highest honors a grateful but struggling
nation would bestow upon one of its sons of
liberty. It is little wonder that thereafter, Amer-
icans everywhere have showered him with trib-
ute which is well known to all of us here. Sprinkled
liberally throughout the map of America are vil-
lages and towns, skyways and byways, monu-
ments and plaques, dedicated to this gallant
Highest Praise From General Washington
Of both these great Polish warriors, Kosciuszko
and Pulaski, General George Washington repeat-
edly wrote the highest words of praise to the Con-
tinental Congress. For through their unselfish
contributions, they had helped lay the foundations
which today make the United States a symbol
of freedom and dignity to mankind throughout
Kosciuszko, perhaps more so than Pulaski, laid
down the first principle of equality in America
when he instructed Thomas Jefferson to prepare
a will in which the Polish warrior instructed that
all of his assets in this country — and they were
sizable — were to be used for the erection of an
institution of higher learning for the American
Negro. To this day, the first educational institu-
tion built with Kosciuszko's money for American
Negroes stands in New Jersey. It would be wise
for those who might be tempted to bemoan so-
called intolerance among Americans of Polish
descent to ponder this historical fact.
Migration To America
With the end of the American Revolution, a be-
leaguered but determined America began build-
ing a new continent which would soon attract
thousands of refugees seeking freedom. They
came here to work and build — and among them
again were the Poles. They saw in the American
Constitution a document written by honorable
men—a document filled with hope and protection
for the dignity of man— a document which was to
endure time and guide a growing nation on a path
of development never before witnessed by man.
In contrast to the oppression and persecution
which millions were suffering in Europe, Amer-
ica was the dream of the entire world. It is no
wonder then, that in this great contingent of
oppressed people seeking freedom were also the
Poles. The Napoleonic Wars, the uprising through-
out the European Continent, Poland's own ill-
fated attempts at freedom, were all a contributing
factor for the ever-increasing migration of Poles
to America . . . for here truly was the promised
First Polish Community: Panna Maria, Tex.
In 1854, the first authentic and wholly organized
Polish community was estalished dn America
when Father Moczygeba and his followers — a
group of peasants from Silesia — arrived on the
shores of Texas. It was indeed an inspiring sight
as this dedicated son of the cloth — an apostle of
Christ — led his ill-clothed and nearly famished
group of Poles into the sunny but dusty valley of
Texas to found Panna Maria — which only a few
years ago observed its 100th anniversary. Father
Moczygeba and his followers brought with them
crudely packed clothing, bedding, carpenter tools,
books and yes — the carillon from their church in
Poland. It was here in the heart of Texas — some
85 miles southeast of San Antonio — that Father
Moczygeba and his colony settled and built the
first Polish Roman Catholic church in America.
To these hearty pioneers who braved famine and
rolling seas went the thanks of a grateful Amer-
ica — anxious to see her turbulent Southwest set-
tled and devoloped. Father Moczygeba's brave
expedition served as an inspiration to thousands
of Americans in eastern States who feared migra-
tion to the West because of terrifying attacks by
raiding Mexican armies. This determined Polish
priest — who had seen his religious teachings being
crushed by the Prussians in his native Poland —
pioneered a new chapter of heroism not only
among the clergy but among oppressed people
all over the world.
For almost 75 years after the American Revolu-
tion, America's valiant effort to weld into one
nation people of many political outlooks, religious
beliefs, and economic standarts underwent a series
of crucial tests until 1861, when terror struck the
entire Nation; the South clashed with the North
over the question of freedom for the American
Negro. In the darkest moment of her brief but
glorious history, America teetered on the verge
of self-destruction. The Civil War struck with
all of its fury, pitting brother against brother,
man against man, and ideology against ideology.
A solemn but dedicated President stubbornly re-
sisted all efforts at compromise, for the principle
of equality burned too deeply in Abraham Lin-
coln's heart to allow for compromise. In his many
inspiring messages, one theme flowed from the
beleaguered President's lips: America cannot long
endure half free and half slave. It was a principle
which had inspired Poles through decades of Po-
Who found he was gonfe] ; yet to crosse his returne to
king of I
And then returning but from the glasse-house 1
■ alone, hee incountred the King of Paspaheigh, a most
| strong stout Salvage ; whose perswasions not being able
S to perswade him to his ambush, seeing him only armed
F but with a fauchion, attempted to haue shot him. But
the President prevented his shot  by grapling with
him ; and the Salvage as well prevented him from drawing
i his fauchion, and perforce bore him into the river to haue
[drowned him. Long they struggled in the water, from
whence the king perceiving two of the Poles vpon the
r sandes, would haue fled : but the President held him by
1 the haire : and throat til the Poles came in. Then seeini
howe pittifullythe poore Salvage begged his life, they con-1
tducted him prisoner to the fort.
Page 150 — "The Proceedings of English Colonie in Virginia.'
land's partitions and suppressions by her warring
neighbors. Lincoln's inspiring words fired the
imagination of freedom-loving men throughout
the world. It is little wonder, then, that in Amer-
ica's darkest moment of history, when survival
hung in the balance, that thousands of Polish im-
migrants flocked to President Lincoln's tragic
appeal for help.
While Kosciuszko and Pulaski have won per-
haps the widest acclaim in America for their
efforts in behalf of this Nation's fight for freedom,
two other Polish generals — seldom if ever men-
tioned in history books — distinguished themselves
in this country's tragic struggle for survival. We
hope that history will correct this injustice and
ultimately place them among the ranks of Amer-
ica's great sons.
General Krzyzanowski Hero Of Civil War
Wladimir Krzyzanowski came to America in the
1850's and completed his engineering studies here.
He assisted in the construction of three railroads
in the Middle West, then settled down as a busi-
nessman in Washington. At the outbreak of the
Civil War he joined the Union forces organizing
a militia company which included many other
Poles and quickly expanded into a regiment'
under his command. He was made a colonel.
Known as the Polish Legion the outfit distinguish-
ed itself in several battles, among them those of
Cross Keys and Bull Run. President Lincoln ap-
pointed Krzyzanowski brigadier general but the
Senate did not immediately confirm the appoint-
ment because none of the Senators was able to
pronounce his name. Krzyzanowski's reputation
as a leader and a fighter increased after the Battle
of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg and in minor
battles in Tennessee. Consistently democratic,
sharing danger, hunger, and fatigue, he was be-
loved by the Legionnaires who at the end of the
war gave him a beautiful sword with an affec-
tionate inscription. Even the Confederates liked
him. When he left the occupation garrison at
Bridgeport, Term., the residents bade him farewell
Pole— First Governor Of Alaska
After the Civil War, Krzyzanowski became the
first American Governor of Alaska. He died in
1887. His grave, in Brooklyn, was long neglected
but in 1937 his remains were transferred to Arling-
ton Cemetery. President Roosevelt, speaking at
the ceremony, expressed beautifully the depth of
feelings, linking together Poland and America.
The President said:
"Throughout centuries and storms, no matter if
the sun was shining or obscured by temporary
clouds, Poland forever thought to carry high the
light of liberty. As we treasure in common the
same idea of liberty, our friendship with Poland
was longstanding and uninterrupted. It is an
honor and privilege to bear witness how the
United States is indebted to people of Polish blood.
We acknowledge the merit of the fearless heroes,
fighting for liberty, of Kosciuszko and Pulaski,
whose very names became the watchwords of
freedom. General Krzyzanowski today joins their
General Karge Of Union Army
Joseph Karge was another Pole who rose to the
rank of general in the Union army. He made
a name for himself in operations against "Stone-
wall" Jackson in Virginia and in the defense of
Washington. Two serious wounds received in 1862
almost compelled him to retire, but he saw the
war through. Toward the end he was assigned to
cope with guerillas in the South. After the war
he was given command of a cavalry unit in Nevada
Krzyzanowski and Karge were part of the large
Polish immigration from German, Austrian and
Russian partitioned Poland that began after the
ill-fated uprisings — against the rule of the three
most powerful emperors in Europe. The several
thousand Polish refugees who came to the United
States during this period were almost exclusively
revolutionists seeking escape from imprisonment
Land Of Promise
The second period, beginning in the seventies,
was mostly a matter of relatives following the
refugees, then of the relatives' kin coming to join
their families in the land of promise. For a while
a good many people in countries like Poland
really believed that the streets in America were
paved with gold. Polish immigration increased
annually, until its peak in the year 1912-13 when
nearly 175,000 Poles were admitted to the United
During the big migration at the turn of the
century, the new arrivals in America were aston-
ished that Polish spirit and culture virtually flow-
ed in American streets. In 1893 — during the
Columbian Exposition in Chicago — the Polish Day
held at the exposition grounds attracted 100,000
people. Polish language newspapers flourished,
services were being held in the Polish language
in many churches and practically every organize
tion had a Polish choral or dance group among
its members. To many of the new Polish im-
migrants America looked like a segment of their
Replica of a 17lh Cenlury Sailer.— Mariners' Museum. Newpori News. Va.
The Poles Among Us
By Albert Q. Maissl
(Reprinted from The Reader's Digest)
Barely a year after it was founded, England's
first settlement in America stood on the verge
of collapse. Jamestown had a magnificent leader
in the tall young soldier, Capt. John Smith; but
most of the colonists sent out with him were
"gentlemen adventurers" — no match for the tough
job they faced in the wilderness. Soon Smith was
beseeching his London backers to "send but 30
carpenters, blacksmiths and masons rather than
a thousand such as we have here."
On September 25, 1608, a small ship sailed up
the James River bearing six broad-backed artisans.
Axes in hand, they followed Smith into the woods
and set about making a clearing. Within three
weeks they had a roaring fire going under a glass
furnace, the first factory in the English Colonies
in America. They tapped the pine trees and dis-
tilled tar and pitch. They set up a soap works
and erected a saw mill. Presently, goaded by their
example, the entire settlement was hard at work.
Surprisingly, this handful to whom Smith later
gave credit for saving the colony — thus insuring
that America would develop as an English-speak-
ing nation— were not Englishmen at all. Their
names were — Michal Lowicki, Zbigniew Stefanski,
Jur Mata, Jan Bogdan, Karol Zrenica, and Stan-
islaw Sadowski — and they landed in America 12
years before the Mayflower.
A few years later these earliest Polish immi-
grants set another precedent. Virginia's new gov-
ernor had authorized the election of the first
legislative body in America, but only natives of
England were to be allowed to vote. Indignantly,
the Poles laid down their tools until they were
granted full equality. In this, America ; s first
strike — staged not for economic gains but to estab-
lish the principle of universal suffrage — the all-
essential craftsmen scored a quick and total vic-
Today the Poles among us — and their Amer-
ican-born descendants— total six million. Yet their
essential character had never changed. Fleeing
from impoverishment and oppression, most Polish
immigrants have come to America endowed with
two precious possessions : an astounding capacity
for hard work, and a flaming love for the freedom
denied them in their homeland.
Among the early Americans of Polish stock,
men outnumbered women ten to one. Many mar-
ried the daughters of Dutch or English families,
and in time their native tongue and customs were
largely forgotten. But their names— though often
simplified for the convenience of their neighbors
— were proudly perpetuated. Typical was the In-
dian trader, Jan Antoni Sadowski, whose name—
because it sounded that way to Americans— was
soon turned to Jonathan Sandusky. In 1735 he
pushed through the Alleghenies, 200 miles beyond
the nearest English settlement, and set up a trad-
ing post near the western end of Lake Erie where
the city of Sandusky now stands.
In the American Revolution the Poles, with
hardly an exception joined the fight for inde-
pendence. At least a thousand names of unmis-
takably Polish origin can be identified in the
muster rolls of the Continental Army. The achieve-
ments of these Poles who were already Americans
have been largely overshadowed, however, by the
fame of two spectacular young volunteers from
abroad, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski.
Both had been exiled from Poland for resisting
the dismemberment of their country by Russia,
Prussia and Austria. With a love of liberty that
knew no national borders, they saw America's
struggle as their own.
Even before the Declaration of Independence
was signed, Kosciuszko — the first foreign officer
to arrive here — offered his services to General
Washington. Commissioned a Colonel of En-
gineers in October, 1776, he erected soon there-
after the breastworks at Saratoga from which
Burgoyne was battered into surrender.
Jefferson hailed him as "the purest son of lib-
erty I have ever known." Congress voted him a
grant of 500 acres and a cash award of over
$12,000. But Kosciuszko never used these funds.
As he boarded a ship for Europe, he handed Jef-
ferson his will, directing that his estate be used
to purchase Negro slaves and give them their
Pulaski fled into exile only after he had held
the czar's armies at bay for four bitter years.
When he offered both his services and his sizable
fortune to America, he did not wait for official
recognition. He was heading a troop of cavalry
at the time of Washington's Brandywine retreat
and was credited with saving much of the Army
by his slashing rearguard raids. Four days after
the battle, Congress hurriedly voted him a gen-
During the winter at Vallev Forge. Pulaski
repeatedly led raids through the British lines,
returning with captured food and supplies. Then
he begged permission to form the independent
cavalry corps that became known as the Pulaski
Legion, and spent $16,000 of his own funds to
equip it. His career was ended at Savannah,
The Founders — stage and part of amphitheater near Williamsburg.
where, charging the enemy, he was killed by
Through all the years that followed, America
opened its gates and its heart to Polish Patriots.
Most of these were young members of the edu-
cated classes who came here with professional or
artistic training. Thus our arts were enriched by
such great musicians as Leopold Stokowski, Ar-
thur Rodzinski, Joseph Hoffman; opera stars Mar-
cella Sembrich Kochahska and Jan Kiepura; the
Shakespearean actress Helena Modjeska (Modrze-
jewska) and the silent-movie star Pola Negri.
Among scientists were the world-famed anthro-
pologist Bronislaw Malinowski; the University of
Michigan's pioneer Professor of Aeronautics Felix
Pawlowski and its equally distinguished mathe-
matician, Prof. Louis Karpinski; the engineer
Ralph Modjeski, who built the spectacular eight-
mile bridge between San Francisco and Oakland
and more than a score of other great bridges.
From 1880 onward, however, the majority of
Polish immigrants were of a different degree.
At that time, Poland, partitioned among the great
powers, was ruled with ruthless oppression. Peas-
ants saw their sons conscripted into the German,
Russian and Austrian armies. Rapidly growing
population condemned many to work for starva-
tion wages as laborers on the big estates. Re-
peated crop failures brought misery to those who
still owned a few acres.
So, first by dozens and later by the tens of
thousands, the young men of Poland's peasant
villages set out for America. From an insignificant
30,000 in 1870, our Polish population grew to over
one million in 1900. By 1910, 875,000 more had
arrived. The tide reached its crest in 1912, when
nearly 175,000 came in a single year.
Soon Poles formed a large segment of the
working force wherever heavy industry had need
for their sturdy muscles. In Chicago they became
meat-packers; in Detroit, engine-block casters; in
Buffalo and Pittsburgh, they worked the Bessemer
converters and the booming- mills; in Scranton
and Wilkes Barre they replaced the Irish and the
Welsh who had had enough of coal-mining.
Deeply devoted to their religion, they began
to attend the existing Roman Catholic churches
wherever they settled. But they missed the elab-
orate pageantry of their village churches in Po-
land. After some resistance, the right to set up
their own churches, manned by Polish priests
and following Polish customs, was granted to
them. Today there are more than 900 such par-
It became the goal of almost every Polish family
to live within walking distance of its own church,
around which all sorts of social activities centered.
Thus, in many cities, densely populated Polish
neighborhoods developed. But these were seldom
slum areas. Unable to express their peasant love
for the land in any other way, Polish industrial
workers scrimped and saved to buy homes of
their own with at least a back yard in which to
rai9e vegetables. In Bayonne, N. J., Americans
of Polish stock own 60 per cent of all the real
property. And Hamtramck, Michigan — the most
solidly Polish city in America — has the highest
ratio of home owners in the nation.
Lack of education condemned most of the immi-
grant generation to work all their lives in humble,
heavy-labor jobs. Yet they never ceased to think
of America as the Land of Opportunity. And, in
the tremendous advances their children have
made here, they found full vindication for that
A good measure of their progress can be found
in the field of sports. Until 1915 only a few Po-
lish Americans stood out as athletes; among them,
Frank Piekarski, who made the All-America Foot-
ball Team in 1904, and Stanley Ketchel (origin-
ally Stanislaus Kiecal) who won the middleweight
boxing title in 1907. Today, in baseball alone, the
list of Polish-American stars, is impressively long.
Stan Musial, who gets $80,000 a year from the
St. Louis Cardinals, has been batting champion
of bis league six times. Ted Kluszewski hit 49
homers in 1956 for Cincinnati to earn himself
a $50,000 contract. Then there are Ed Looat, Joe
Collins, Jim Konstanty, Ray Jablonski, Bill Maze-
roski, Ted Kazanski, Ray Semproch, Rip Repulski,
Steve Bilko, Tony Kubek, Ray Narleski, Bill Skow-
ron and more than 20 others.
In college football, Ail-American honors have
been pinned on one or more Americans of Polish
descent in almost every year since 1927. At one
point the "Fighting Irish" of Notre Dame had so
many boys with Polish names on their squad
that Knute Rockne was asked how he picked his
players. "It's a cinch, — he answered with a grin.
"When I can't pronounce 'em, they're good." To-
day there are about 300 Polish-Americans on
major college teams.
In recent years Poles have moved to the top
in other sports. In golf there are Ted Kroll, Bob
Toski and the spectacular Ed Furgol, who, despite
a withered arm, won the 1956 National Open
Championship. Frank Parker ranked among the
top ten in tennis for more than 15 years. Stella
Walsh, one of our greatest all-around woman
athletes, has captured 41 National AAU cham-
pionships and set 65 world and national track
Comparatively few among the immigrant gen-
eration from Poland ever entered the world of
business, except to open small stores that relied
on the trade of their fellow immigrants. Similarly,
today, most of the young Polish-Americans who
have attended our universities have chosen tio
enter the professions rather than business. There
are now, for example, about 5,000 American phy-
Buildings such as this were used by the pioneers
The four glass furnaces located by archeological excavation on Glasshouse Point.
sicians of Polish descent, including such disting-
uished men as Dr. Thaddeus Danowski, Professor
of Research Medicine at the University of Pitts-
burgh; Dr. Joseph Adamkiewicz, Assistant Clin-
ical Professor of Surgery at Marquette University;
Lt. Col. Edwin Pulaski, formerly chief assistant
surgeon at Walter Reed Hospital.
The last decade has seen the rise of a whole crop
of young Polish-American physicists and engi-
neers, foremost among whom is the 45-year old
Emil J. Konopinski, who has been credited with
much of the theoretical work that made possible
the development of the H-bomb. Other atomic
physicists include Dr. Gerald Pawlicki of the Oak
Ridge National Laboratory; Dr. Bruno J. Zwolin-
ski of the National Science Foundation; and Dr.
Roman Smoluchowski, Professor of Physics and
Metallurgical Engineering at Carnegie Institute
of Technology. In engineering, the firm of Piasecki
Helicopter Corp. is pioneering in helicopter de-
Coming from lands where the opinions of Poles
— and particularly of peasants — were never con-
sulted, the immigrants at first had no experience
to guide them in American politics. But their
horizons have broadened remarkably. Since 1932
the membership of the U. S. House of Represent-
atives has included from 10 to 12 Congressmen of
Polish stock. John Dingell, with 20 years of se-
niority, is a member of the powerful Ways and
Means Committee. Alfred Sieminski is now serv-
ing his third term in Congress as a member of
the Appropriations Committee. The election of
Edmund S. Muskie as Governor of Maine last
fall indicates that non-Polish voters will readily
support a strong candidate without regard for his
In the defense of America, recent generations
of Polish-Americans have played as devoted a
role as did their predecessors in Revolutionary
days. When we entered World War I the astound-
ing total of 40,000 Polish names was on the roll
of the first 100,000 to enlist. Before that conflict
ended, 300,000 Polish-Americans served. In World
War II more than 900,000 served in the Armed
The conflict returned Poland's history to an old
and dismal course. Invaded and ravaged, first by
Germany, then by Russia, its people emerged
from the struggle to find themselves behind the
Iron Curtain with Soviet troops in occupation
and Communists in full control. Once again Amer-
ica resumed its traditional role as a haven for
exiled Poles. Since 1945 nearly 180,000 have been
admitted here under the various refugee relief
Through recent years our culture has been
enriched by the skills and talents of such Polish
exiles as Florian Znaniecki, Professor Emeritus
of Sociology at the University of Illinois; Dr.
Hilary Koprowski, Assistant Director of Virus Re-
search at Lederic Laboratories; historians Oscar
Halecki of Fordham and Jan Karski of George-
town; the arctic explorer Henry Arctowski, for-
merly at the astrophysical observatory of the
Smithsonian Institution — and hundreds of others.
For Americans of Polish birth, the current con-
dition of Poland poses a particularly heart-rend-
ing dilemma. Everything in their tradition and
background leads them to reject Communism.
Yet ties of sympathy and family relationship bind
them closely to the Polish people. They resolve the
dilemma by drawing a careful distinction between
the Poles and the Communist government that
controls them. Through more than 100,000 food
packages a month, they try to relieve the suffering:
of their relatives in the old country. But at the
same time, in every letter they send, they seek
to keep alive the thirst for Polish freedom.
Their primary interest, however, lies in Amer-
ica. As they view Poland's present travail, they
value all the more highly the freedom, the oppor-
tunity and the human dignity that has become
their American birthright.
"Wakefield" — George Washington Birthplace
National Monument. Reconstructed house where
Washington was born. Family cemetery contains
graves of his grandfather and great-grandfather.
We may well call attention of the world to
our achievements of three and a half centuries,
and ask all who come at our invitation to share
with us the joy and the inspiration of the occa-
sion.. The great heritage that is ours as Virginians
requires us to properly commemorate this annu
versary and report on our stewardship of the
historic shrines in which the American people feel
a sense of poprietorship.
THOMAS B. STANLEY,
Former Governor of Virginia
Commemoration Day in Pennsylvania
(Reprinted from The Scran tonian)
Harrisbuirg, Pa. — Governor George M. Leader
has issued a proclamation calling upon the citi-
zens of Pennsylvania to observe October 1 "as a
day of commemoration of the 350th anniversary
of the arrival of the first Polish pioneers in Amer-
ica, in recognition of the many valuable services
performed for our Nation by her citizens of Polish
The ceremony took place in the Capitol Build-
ing with representatives from various Polish-
American organizations throughout the State
Henry J. Dende, president of the Polish Amer-
ican Congress, Lackawanna County, headed the
Northeastern Pennsylvania delegation.
On Sunday, Sept. 28, Americans of Polish de-
scent will commemorate the 350th anniversary at
commemorative exercises to be held in the pavilion
of Jamestown Festival Park, Jamestown, Va. A
large delegation from Lackawanna County is ex-
pected to attend the festivities which are being
sponsored by the national committee of the Polish
Polish artisans— glass blowers, pitch, tar, potash
and clapboard makers landed in Jamestown in
October, 1608. At first there were only five of
them, but soon their number grew to 50.
Historians agree that the Polish pioneers were
instrumental in saving Jamestown colony from a
total failure, built the New World's first factory —
the historic Glass House, manufactured the first
export goods and struck the first effective blow
for civic liberties.
Jamestown was founded in 1607, two years be-
fore this historical event. History has recorded
that the first settlers were primarily a band of
gentlemen adventurers lured here by the myth
that the shores of the New World were strewn
It took the example of the Polish glass makers
to demonstrate to the colonists that the treasures
of Virginia were in the soil, not nuggets to be had
There was ample wealth, but it required strong
arms, stout hearts and technical knowledge to con-
vert it into coin.
Only 32 of the original band of 100 settled sur-
vived that first two Winters in Virginia. When the
second group arrived with 70 recruits for the new
colony, Capt. John Smith warmly welcomed the
five Polish artisans among them both as skilled
workmen and representatives of a sturdy, indus-
Capt. Smith, according to history, had reason to
respect and admire the Poles. Only a few years
before, in Christian Europe's wars with the infidels,
he had been captured by the Turks and led into
slavery. All of Southeastern Europe was then held
by the Mohammedans and the first Christian sanc-
tuary and fugitive found was in Poland.
In the book be later wrote, called "The True
Travels," Smith describes how he crossed Poland,
aided every foot of the way by people unmatched
for "respect, mirth, content and entertainment,"
who insisted on loading him with gifts before
sending him on to the next town.
It is important for us to call to memory the
great achievements of our forefathers in hewing
out of the wilderness a new nation. The founding
of the first permanent English settlement in 1607
of the first representative form of government in<
at Jamestown, Virginia., the establishment there
the New World; the flowering Colonial culture at
Williamsburg and the winning of American inde-
pendence at Yorktown are important milestones
in our nation's history.
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
A portion of Jamestown
Island is included in Colonial National
Historical Park and is administered by the
National Park Service of the United States
Department of the Interior. Jamestown
National Historic Site, the other portion
of the island, is administered by the Asso-
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia
Antiquities. A cooperative agreement be-
tween the Association and the Depart-
ment of the Interior has been in effect since
1940 providing for a unified program of
development for the whole Jamestown
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O ^S 01
What Was The
The things that interest and concern most people
in connection with glassmaking at Jamestown are
what the glasshouse looked like, how it operated,
and what was made there.
Archeological evidence points to the conclusion
that the Italians repaired the earlier furnaces with-
out material alteration, and operated with about
the same facilities as the first glass workers.
Although there are no descriptions or pictures
of the Jamestown glasshouse, there was aid in con-
jectural reconstruction in knowing something
albout the facilities used in glassmaking in Europe
at that time, what was made, and how it was
made. There was benefit, too, from the conserv-
atism of glassmaking. Even the furnace described
by Theophilus about 1000 A. D. was similar, for
the most part, to one of the two types in use in
England six centuries later.
In fact, many of the steps in producing hand-
made glass have not changed even to this day.
The final picture, therefore, of what the glass-
house looked like, how the furnaces were built,
the tools and articles used in the factory, and how
the glass was melted and fashioned is probably
correct in the main, even though evidence seems
The most important consideration in starting
a glass factory was the availability of an adequate
supply of fuel. There was plenty of fuel in Vir-
ginia in 160-8. Accounts tell of the great forests
of oak, pine, black walnut, ash, elm, cypress, white
poplar, cedar, and other trees. Of the wood near
Jamestown suitable for glassmaking, oak was by
far the most prevalent, and the supply must have
appeared unlimited to the colonists.
An adequate fuel supply was not the only con-
sideration in picking a location for the glasshouse.
Important, too, was a site close to the shore of
the river, for the colonists had to rely almost
entirely upon water transportation.
A factory site on Jamestown Island, as desir-
able as it might have been from the standpoint
of transportation and safety from Indians was
not feasible, for the available high ground was
being cleared and planted, and it would not have
been long before the securing of fuel would have
been a problem.
Just what the factory building looked like can
only be guessed, for no archeological information
was discovered, other than its overall size, approx-
imately 37 by 50 feet. Nor is there any good in-
formation as to what such buildings looked like
in England in that day. Engravings picturing the
interior of glasshouses of a century later show
simple, wood-framed factory-like structures. An
old print, probably dating from about 1500 A. D.,
shows a plain roof supported on corner posts, with
no covering on the sides. The one at Jamestown
would certainly have been a simple framework,
shows a plain roof supported on corner posts, with
a thatched roof. Such a building you see today
on Glasshouse, Point.
The Path of Service
(P. A. C. Newsletter Editorial)
The Polish American Congress was founded in
1944 in Buffalo by American leaders of Polish
descent who were disturbed by Allied wartime
concessions to Russian-communist imperialism.
Among the main purposes and objectives of
the Polish American Congress are : —
— complete support of the United States Gov-
ernment in its efforts to win a just and durable
— drafting and applying a constructive program
of activities within the United States for the wel-
fare of persons of Polish origin, with the view
of encouraging the growth of their fraternal, pro-
fessional, ideological, civic and other associations;
— activities in the direction of closer and deeper
cooperation of American democracy with the
people of Poland, in the fields of civic, cultural
and socio-economic life;
— furnishing information to the American public
on Poland's historic role, her aims, her needs and
her right to independence and integrity of her
The Polish American Congress was the first
American organization to speak out against the
aggrandizement of the Soviet Union and to warn
against the appeasement of Russia.
Since 1944, the Polish American Congress car-
ried this warning to the American public, its lead-
ing figures, and to the governments, represented
at the United Nations.
Events of history, revealing the true menace
of communism, have proved the validity of these
The Polish American Congress consistently em-
phasizes the importance of restoring a free, inde-
pendent and integral Poland as the cornerstone
of European stability and as the foundation of
world peace and American security.
\ PERSONS OF QUALITY;
EMIGRANTS;* RELIGIOUS EXILES; POLITICAL REBELS;
SERVING MEN SOLD FOR A TERM OF YEARS; APPRENTICES;
f CHILDREN STOLEN; MAIDENS PRESSED; AND OTHERS "~
v WHO WENT FROM GREAT BRITAIN TO THE ,i
' AMERICAN PLANTATIONS
l600- 1 76O.
WITH THEIR AGES, THE
LOCALITIES WHERE THEY FORMERLY LIVED IN THE MOTHER COUNTRY,
\ THE NAMES OF THE SHIPS IN WHICH THEY EMBARKEp,
j . AND OTHER IKTERESTING PARTICULARS. /
FROM MSS. PRESERVED IN THE STATE PAPER DEPARTMENT OP HER
I MAJESTY'S PUBLIC •RECORD OFFICE* ENGLAND.
JOH N €am^E N: ; IJOttE &.
J W BOSTON) 70^ B
Transliterations Of Polish Patronymics
While neither ihe primary sources, i. e. Capl. Smith's
writings and original Jamestowners' accounts nor the
Records of the Virginia Company record Polish pioneers
by their surnames, a number of Poles could be surmised
from the incomplete "Original Lists" from the years of
1600 to 1700.
The difficulties, however, are great, and without ad-
ditional genealogical data, it is not possible to stale with
accuracy, which names bear Polish patronymics.
Even typical English names are misspelled in the
records. Non-English are written phonetically, in prac-
tically all instances.
Transliterations of these names can be based only
on the sounds of written words. Some of them have no
meaning in the English language. Taken phonetically
and written as Polish sounds, they immediately gain in
expression and substance. Thus — Michael Lowicke be-
comes Lowicki — a hunter; Molasco the Polander — Maty-
szko, Lt. Poitocke — a Potocki, etc.
In the partially preserved "Original Lists," we find
such names as: — Henryk Bursztyn (Purstyn), Jan Skory
(Skorie), Maria (Wrast), Tomass Dab (Dabb),
Edward Wygon (Wygon). Jan Kulawy (Kullaway), To-
masz Mienlus (Mentus or Meutis), William Andrus
(Andrus), Tomasz Odzwierny (Oddiarne), Maleusz Kuia
(Cuta). Jan Leca (first name recorded "Jan") with wife
and children, Jan Dajmont (Damont) with wife and
children, and many others.
(PAC Newsletter Editorial)
Jamestown in Virginia is the cradle of the
Polish American heritage, — rich in examples of
patriotic living, of enduring deeds, of dedicated
service to God and Country.
Polish pioneers planted the seeds of these last-
ing valors in New World's first permanent English
settlement in 1608.
At first, there were only five of them . . . soon
their number grew to fifty.
Historians are agreed that these Polish pioneers
in America —
— were instrumental in saving Jamestown col-
ony from a total failure;
— built New World's first factory — the historic
— manufactured first export goods in this land;
— struck the first effective blow for civic liber-
Other Poles followed in their footsteps and made
lasting contribution to the growth and develop-
ment of the United States . . . Pulaski, Kosciuszko,
Karge, Krzyzanowski, Barzyhski, Sadowski (San-
dusky) are the illustrious names in American
Today — we are 7-million strong in the United
We have built 1,000 churches and parochial
schools, fifteen High Schools and four colleges.
We have organized great fraternal orders with
combined assets of over 250-milhon dollars, and
two war Veterans' groups.
We are publishing 8 American dailies and 15
periodicals in the Polish language.
In 1958 we are observing the 350th anniversary
of the coming of the first Poles to America — three
and a half centuries of our creative participation
in the development and stabilization of the Amer-
ican Way of Life.
We invite you to actively participate in this
Etched on the William and Mary roll of fame are
the names of the first President of the United States,
who, although not an alumnus, held his first and last
public office at the College, and three other Presidents
of the United States, fifteen members of the Con-
tinental Congress, the authors of both the Declaration
of Independence and the Monroe Doctrine, a Chief
Justice of the United States and three Associate
Justices of the Supreme Court, thirteen Cabinet
members, 29 Senators, three Speakers and 56 Mem-
bers of the House of Representatives, 1 8 Ministers to
Foreign Governments, 21 judges of the Virginia
Supreme Court of Appeals, besides scores of others
distinguished in civil and military life, in letters,
science, the arts, education, and the church.
UPT 1»M NPH-COl-7019
Long And Glorious Tradition
By HON. ALVIN E. O'KONSKI
Congressman from Wisconsin
It is often imagined that the Polish Americans
like most other central-eastern European citizens
are recent arrivals to our shores. Actually the
Poles settled in America even hefore the more
boasting Pilgrims of the Mayflower. The begin-
nings of Colonial Virginia marked the beginnings
of the history of Polish immigration in this coun-
try. Jamestown was founded in 1607 by the Vir-
ginia Company of London. A year later, in
October of 1608, the Poles appeared. They arrived
with the Second Supply and were engaged by the
Virginia Company as experts and instructors in
the manufacture of glass and pitch, tar and other
products which Poland had long exported to Eng-
land. They built a glass furnace about a mile
from Jamestown and cut down the first trees for
wood manufacture; in short time they sent to
England the first samples of their work, in fact,
the first products of American industry.
Unfortunately, the English settlers were "vaga-
bond gentlemen" who were accustomed to easy
life and came to Virginia in quest of gold rather
than a life of industry and liberty. In his book,
Captain John Smith gave the Poles credit for
saving the Virginia Colony and often spoke of
their skill in making pitch, tar, soap-ashes and the
glass beads which were used as currency in trad-
ing with the Indians. Captain Smith wrote: "They
(colonists) never did know what a day's work was
except the Poles."
Then came the terrible winter of 1609-1610 that
was known as "starving time" ; of the four hun-
dred colonists only sixty survived. Added to this
were constant fear of attacks by Indians, pesti-
lence and famine. Many Poles survived this winter
and the manufacture of wood products in Vir-
ginia lasted until 1622. The bloody massacre of
that year was the fatal stroke that broke the
spirit of the colony.
* * •
The Polish worker contributed to America's
development not only by his "sweat and brawn"
' £.'<%&*&> f t
but also by his honesty and love of liberty. It
was this sense of justice and willingness to fight
for liberty that gave the Poles the right to vote.
For in the year 1619 the Jamestown colony was
granted a form of self-government by the London
Company and the English settlers were given the
right to vote. However, the Poles were denied
that right. The Poles justly demanded the right
to vote and full equality with the other colonists.
In the tiny community this was equivalent to a
major rebellion. This was the first political up-
heaval in America for the purpose of extending
rights to the common man. In it men of different
backgrounds acted jointly against injustice for
the first time in the New World. The Poles ceased
to work until they could vote. The dispute as-
sumed such proportions that Governor Yeardley
was forced to report it to the Council at London.
The Poles won the first victory for freedom and
the records of the Company mentions on July 3rd,
"Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident in
Virginia, it was now agreed (notwithstanding any
former order to the contrary) that they shall be
enfranchised and made as free as any inhabitant
there whatsover: and because their skill in mak-
ing pitch and tar and soap ashes shall not die with
them, it is agreed that some young men shall be
put unto them to learn their skill and knowledge
there in for the benefit of the country hereafter."
This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not
for economical advantages, but for political rights,
may be justly regarded as the first struggle and
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this
As the Poles won the first victory for the cause
of freedom in this country, it was also from Poland
that came the first foreign patriot to heed the
call of the "Shot that was heard around the
world" and the first to come to the aid of the
American colonies in their struggle for freedom.
This man was General Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the
Father of the American Artillery. General Kos-
ciuszko is one of this country's greatest patriots
and his role in the American Revolution is well-
known to every school boy. Washington once
wrote to him "No one has a higher respect and
veneration for your character than I have." Gen-
eral Kosciuszko and the equally famous and great
Count Pulaski are the best known among the
myriads of patriots that Poland has sent to our
shores to partake in the cause of freedom. Many
like Count Pulaski lost their lives in this struggle
that will be remembered as long as liberty and
freedom are cherished by man.
Poles in this country have a long and glorious
tradition as freedom loving people. They have
made their full contribution to the upbuilding of
our institutions and to the fulfillment of our na-
tional life. Though we are reflecting on our great
traditions, let us not forget that it is to Ellis
Island rather than to Jamestown that a great part
of the Polish Americans trace their history in
this country. American Poles have been mostly
laborers and farmers. They arrived in this country
like the Polish carpenters and pitch makers of
Virginia and the Polish Soldiers of the Revolution ;
at the crucial moment in the development of the
American Commonwealth. At the time of laying
the foundation of the new industrial empire. This
army of labor, in which the Poles played an im-
portant part, has won for this nation the first
place in the industrial life of the world. It is these
people as well as the frontiermen who constitute
the real historical background which needs to be
* * *
In reviewing the glorious traditions of the free-
dom loving Polish people of our nation, let us not
forget Poland today. If Kosciuszko and Pulaski
were alive today, they would say: "Fight for the
freedom of Poland. Do everything in your power
to bring justice to Poland because Poland is now
the test case of Freedom as your nation was in
1776." Let us all repeat in our hearts the song of
Poland: "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela."
As a Congressman I know that the best way
of preserving freedom everywhere is helping to
preserve the freedom of Poland. Let us forever
cling to our great traditions of freedom and never
cease to fight for Poland's freedom. If freedom
fails in Poland it will fail in all of Europe. Free-
dom is not something that remains stagnant —
it either grows or dies. If Poland dies, freedom
dies with it. Because we love America and because
we love freedom, our hearts are for Poland, our
tears are for Poland, our words are going to be
for Poland, because we know that Poland has
always been the most loyal and gallant ally of
the freedom loving people of America.
350th ANNIVERSARY OF JAMESTOWN
(Excerpts from Linn's Weekly Stamp News)
A strong sentiment is already developing in
philatelic and other circles favoring the issuance
of a stamp or set of stamps to mark the 350th
anniversary of the arrival of the first "foreign
immigrants" in America. These were a contingent
of Polish skilled workmen brought in by the
Jamestown, Va. settlers in the second year of
The realization that this is a historical fact
comes as a surprise to many who consider them-
selves acquainted with early colonial days. It is
reminiscent of one rather unusual factor held
in common by two commems of last year, the
Virginia of Sagadalhock "ship building" stamp
and the Jamestown adhesive — each brought the
public face to face with some hitherto little known
pioneer American history.
In the first instance the approach was direct —
the stamp proclaimed the message. In the latter
the kernel was well buried beneath the assorted
pomp and pageantry, fanfare and general whoop-
de-do of noting the 350th anniversary of the May
14, 1607 landing at Jamestown. Further, it prov-
ided a faint clue to the basis of the proposed new
Even so, it was only the alert Jamestown tourist
who had eyes in his head and a keen perception
behind them, and who in the course of his meande-
rings found himself out on Glass House Point
watching the reconstructed early 17th century
glass works in operation, who could divine the
history that lay behind the aquaint equipment and
oddly dressed workmen.
For this was no carnival glassblowing sideshow,
no "added attraction". It was, rather, a recon-
struction of our great nation's first factory, and
squarely on the original site at that. This spot it
was from which the first export consignment of
American made merchandise was shipped almost
exactly 350 years ago. And it was on this ground
that humanity's greatest crucible, the American
Melting Pot, struck its first boil. The date was
October 1, 1608.
Sixteen months earlier the English had landed
at Jamestown and set up their poorly projected
and ill organized colony. It had soon become ap-
parent that skilled workmen were needed, and
overtures were made to Polish craftsmen then in
England and others still in the old country.
The first contingent landed in the new world
October 1, 1608. At once they set about estab-
lishing facilities for producing glass cordage, flax,
masts, pitch, rosin, soap ashes, and other products
wihdch they had originally exported from Poland
Within three weeks that first glass furnace was
blazing away, and in less than two months the
industrious newcomers had made enough assorted
products to forward a modest consignment to
England via the "Mary and Margaret" which had
brought them. Later such products as clapboards,
building materials and lumber were added to the
outward bound cargoes. (The capacity of that
first glass furnace was modest, but its "descend-
ants" of 1958 have a combined annual capacity of
more than six million tons, at latest reports).
Among those first arrivals from Catholic Poland
coming to the aid of Protestant Englishmen in the
new world were Zbigniew Stefahski, Jan Bogdan,
Jan Mata, and Stanisiaw Sadowski directly from
Poland, and Michal Nowicki from London.
Later ships brought more Poles wlhk> distin-
guished themselves both in defending the colony
against hostile Indians and in helping it grow in
economy. No one could estimate what might have
been the ultimate destiny of the ill-fated under-
taking had it not been for these first "foreign
immigrants" of its second and subsequent years.
After a year or so, some of these early Polish
settlers returned to England with Capt. John
Smith and settled for a while in London. The
Virginia Company implored them to return to
Jamestown with a promise of better living condi-
tions and a better administration. In May, 1610,
they returned and renewed their efforts in the
By 1619 the colony had grown to 2000 freedom
loving settlers who now were extended certain
civil rights and liberties. Under the pretext that
they were still indebted for their passage from
England to America, the Poles were denied their
right to vote in the election of burgesses, so they
stopped their work at the glass furnace.
According to the records of The Virginia Co.
"they ceased to work until this injustice would be
removed." The matter was referred to the Com-
pany's Council in London which went on record
that "concessions were made to the Polanders and
they were ordered to finish their strike."
This was the first strike in America and it was
won — not for economic gains or fringe benefits,
but to gain civil liberties.
Apropos the strike, it was further documented :
"And because their skill in making glass, soap,
pitch and tar shall not die with them, it is agreed
Typical objects recovered in the Jamestown excavations.
that some young' men shall be put unto them to
learn their skill and knowledge therein for the
benefit of the country hereafter."
The location where the Poles had their glass
furnace is known to this day as Glass House Point.
In 1931 Jesse Dimmick, owner of the land, found
the exact spot where the furnace was located and
in 1948 and 1949 our National Park Service un-
covered pieces of furnaces, glass-making imple-
ments and considerable chunks of glass.
During the celebration of the 350th anniversary
of the founding of Jamestown, the American Flint
Glass Worker Union with others, spent $100,000
to reconstruct the glass works and to keep it in
operation as an attraction to visitors. — The
equipment dress, atmosphere and minute details
of the 17th century are carefully maintained.
On or about October 1st, 1958 on the precise
350th anniversary, Americans of Polish descent
will gather at Jamestown to celebrate the arrival
of the first Polish settlers in America. Incidental-
ly, there are today some 7,000,000 Americans of
Polish descent in this country and some of them
trace their ancestry to the settlers at Jamestown.
To commemorate the Jamestown Exposition
held at Hampton Roads, April 20 to December 1,
1907, on the 300th anniversary of the founding of
the first permanent English settlement in Amer-
ica the U. S. Post Office issued a set of three
stamps in April and May, 1907. Similarly, the
350th anniversary was noted last year by the re-
lease of the Jamestown Naval Review single.
Proponents of the idea of the October stamp
feel that such further philatelic recognition is in
order to pay tribute to this first grist to feed tlhe
American Melting Pot, three and a half centuries
ago, on the Virginia shore.
Jamestown Settlers Trading With The Indians
For inexpensive beads and trinkets the colonists received furs, foods,
and other commodities from the aborigines
Photo courtesy National Park Service.
Tools Used By The Early Jamestown Settlers For Timbering
A few of many tools excavated at Jamestown which were used for
timbering over 300 years ago: felling axes, a hewing axe, adze,
hatchet, wedge, and saw fragment.
History Of Jamestown Glass House Of 1608
Historical articles on glass, even the most
abbreviated, usually begin with a review of the
history of Egyptian and Roman glass, but we de-
part from this customary treatment, even to the
omission of a quotation from Pliny, who so nicely
accounts for the discovery of glass by the acci-
dental fusion of sand in a desert campfire and
begin in London shortly before the Second Supply
sailed for the Virginia colony in the summer of
1608, for it was in this Supply that the first
glassmakers were carried to Jamestown.
Captain Christopher Newport had [returned
from Jamestown after replenishing the struggling
colony with men and supplies, and officials of the
London Company of Virginia were again recruit-
ing settlers. The word that Newport brought back
would have discouraged any but the most opti-
mistic, for none of the Objectives of the under-
taking had been achieved, save the planting of
the colony, and even that was in a precarious
Prominent in the list of possible industries for
which Virginia seemed suitable was glassmakinlg.
In the past fifty years there had been a great
increase in the demand for glass. Expansion of
the industry had been limited by the gradual de-
pletion of the forests, for coal was just beginning
to be used as fuel in glass furnaces.
Captain Newport had explored the vicinity of
Jamestown and would have known that the re-
sources needed for glassmaking were readily
available in the new land.
But enlisting English glassmakers to leave a
flourishing industry at home and set up busi-
ness anew in a strange land across the ocean
was not easy. It is not surprising, therefore, to
find the Company looking abroad, and among the
seventy settlers who sailed for Virginia in the
summer of 1608 were "eight Dutchmen and
Poles," some of whom were glassmakers.
Whatever the future might hold for glass-
making in Virginia, its introduction in the fall
of 1608 certainly appeared at the time to greatly
enhance the chances for the colony's success and
supplied excellent propaganda for reassuring the
uneasy investors in England. Things had been
going from bad to worse before the arrival of
the Second Supply.
The first real step toward permanency came
with the Second Supply, which brought among
its seventy new settlers a number of artisans,
including the eight Dutchmen and Poles. Cap-
tain John Smith, who had become President of
the Council in September, dispatched some of the
newcomers to making glass.
The glass factory, according to Smith, was
located "in the woods neare a myle from James
Towne," or, as William Strachey described it, "a
little without the Island where Jamestown stands."
There, as Strachey goes on to say, the glass
workers and their helpers erected a glasshouse,
which was "a goodly howse . . . with all offices
and furnaces thereto belonging."
These newcomers must have set themselves to
this task with greater diligence than most of the
colonists had previously approached their work,
for, when Captain Newport left for England late
that year, he carried with him "tryals of Glasse."
Of what this first "tryal of glasse" consisted,
the record gives no hint.
The records tell very little more about this
first glassmaking venture. There are a few in-
direct references, sudb as when Smith tells of a
fight he had with an Indian in the spring of 1609
when returning alone from the glasshouse. Then
there is a reference to a second "tryal" being pro-
duced that spring. But these add little beyond
the fact that there was activity at the glass fac-
tory during the first six months or more follow-
ing its establishment.
Likely the first glassmaking venture came to
a close about the time that John Smith returned
to England in the fall of 1609. In any event, glass-
making most certainly would not have continued
during the terrible period of starvation and sick-
ness which followed Smith's departure — a period
realistically labelled "The Starving Time," dur-
ing which all but 60 of the 500 inhabitants at
Twelve years later, and less than a year after
the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, a second glass-
making venture got under way at Jamestown.
It was a well organized, businesslike undertaking,
quite unlike the earlier pioneering effort of 1608
and staffed with experienced Italian glass workers.
This second venture was organized largely
through the initiative of Captain William Norton,
not a glassmaker himself, but an adventurous
soul with some money to invest. In June, 1621,
he petitioned the London Company for a patent
to "sett upp o Glasse ffurnace [in Virginia] and
make all manner of Beads & Glasse." He proposed
to take four "Itallyans" and two servants to Vir-
ginia, who were to have the glasshouse operating
within three months after their arrival.
After considerable haggling- over terms, ar-
rangements were finally made and funds to assist
Captain Norton in the venture were raised by
the sale of joint stock. With him the Company
dispatched a letter to the colonial authorities
"We commend unto you Capt. Wm. Norton
who is now sett out by the general Company and
many private Adventurers for her erecting of
a Glass Worke ; . . . and especially have a Care
to seat him neare some well inhabited Place,
that neither his Gange be subject to Surprise,
nor the Commodities of Glasse and Beads be vili-
fied by too common a Sale to the Indians."
The Italians proved a difficult crew to deal
with, and offered one excuse after another for
failing to make glass. They did have some hard
luck, however. First their glasshouse blew down;
then the Indian massacre of 1622 put a stop to
everything for the time being.
Finally Captain Norton died, and even the
Italians "fell extremely sick." George Sandys,
resident treasurer for the Company, took over
the project upon Norton's death, but fared little
better in getting results. He repaired the furnace
and the crew set to work in earnest in the spring
of 1623, but without success.
"The Fier hath now been six Weeks in ye
Furnace, and yett nothing effected. They com-
plaine that ye Sand will not run . . . but I con-
ceave that they would gladly make the Worke
appeare unfeasable, that they might by that
Meanes be dismissed for England. Much hath
beene my Truble herein, and not a little my
In a desperate effort to make something of
the enterprise, Sandys even sent to England for
sand that might better suit the glass workers,
but he finally was forced to give up completely
in the spring of 1624. The records are not con-
clusive, but they would certainly suggest that
little, if any glass was made during this second
glassmaking venture at Jamestown.
In both of these attemps to get the glass in-
dustry started in America, individuals in England
had invested rather heavily. By 1624, when the
London Company lost its charter and Virginia
became a crown colony, they must have been
fairly discouraged. It certainly was obvious, even
before 1624, that financial profits in the colony
would come easier and faster from tilling the soil
than from uncertain manufacturing ventures.
Reprinted from the Virginia Gazette.
Making Tar At Jamestown From Pine Wood
"No Sooner Were We Landed" . . .
And Making Tar And Pitch* Started
Pitch and tar — used by shipbuilders from time
immemorial for cauking and covering seams of
vessels — were made at Jamestown as early as
1608. After the second supply ships reached
Jamestown in October, 1608, one of the settlers
No sooner were we landed, but the President
disprersed (as) many as were able, some for
glasse, others for pitch, tarre, and soape ashes.
A month later trials of pitch and tar were carried
to England by Captain Christopher Newport, as
reported by Thomas Studley, one of the original
Captaine Newport being dispatched with the
tryals of pitch, tarre, glass, frankincense and sope
ashes, with that clapbord and wainscot (which)
could be provided.... returned for England.
As pitch and tar were made in Virginia through-
out the seventeenth century, mainly for exporting
to England, it appears that the colonists made
some profit from the sale of such products.
Pitch and tar were obtained from pine trees, one
of the common trees in the Tidewater Virginia
woods. Tar is an oily ,dark colored, product ob-
tained in the destructive distillation of pine wood.
In Virginia it was commonly made from the re-
sinous roots and wood of various pines. The wood
was heaped into a conical stack depressed at the
center, covered with eartiht, and fired. The tar ran
into a hollowed-out place in the soil beneath the
stack of wood. Pitch was a dark-colored viscous
substance obtained as a residue in distilling pine
tar, and widely used for cauking seams of boats.
It is of interest that the early settlers named the
large swamp north of the town area "Pitch and
Tar Swamp". Undoubtedly the large pine trees
which bordered the swamp were used for making
pitch and tar, as well as turpentine and resin.
'The Records of the Virginia Company plainly stale
that the Poles were "masters" and "instructors" in
glass, pilch, tar and potash making.
Doctor Lawrence Bohun Experimenting With Herbs At Jamestown, l6l0
Herbs That Healed Poisoned Wounds
Were Shown The Pioneers By One Indian
HERBS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS
Among commodities which the early Jamestown
settlers searched for were herbs and medicinal
plants. It is possible that Thomas Wotton and Will
Wilkinson, surgeons with the first colony, were
the first members of the English medical pro-
fession to collect and experiment with New World
The few colonists who wrote of their travels in
Virginia frequently made mention of the herbs
and native plants. George Percy related that five
days after the settlers had planted their colony
at Jamestown, May 19, 1607, that "One of the
savages brought us on the way to the wood-side,
where there was a garden of tobacco and other
fruits and heroes."
On an exploring trip upriver from Jamestown
in late May, 1607, Gabriel Archer recorded that
"One (savage) shewed us the herbe called in their
tongue wisacan, which they say heals poysoned
woundes, it is like lyverwort or bloudwort."
John Smith mentioned the spring herbs, though
he did not know their names: "Many hearbes in
the spring time there are common dispersed
throughout the woods, good for brothers and
sallets, as violets, purslin, sorrell, &c. Besides
many were used whose names we know not."
The first supply, approximately 120 settlers,
reached Jamestown in midwinter and early spring,
1608. Among the group was a physician, Dr. Wal-
ter Russell ; a surgeon, Post Ginnatt ; and two
apothecaries, Thomas Feld and John Harford.
There is no record, however, indicating that these
men used Virginia plants and herbs for medicinal
The man who first made intensive experiments
with native plants was Doctor Lawrence Bohun*.
Arriving at Jamestown in 1610, he is mentioned
several times by William Strachey, who also
reached Jamestown in 1610 in the Hitorie of
Travell into Virginia.
'The name implies Polish origin.
National Park Service
Uncovers Ancient Site
The location of the Jamestown glasshouse was
discovered almost through pure chance by the late
Jesse Dimmick who owned the property before it
was acquired by the Government as part of the
Jamestown area. Mr. Dimmick knew that the
glasshouse site might be on his land, for he was
well acquainted with the old records. These records
were too vague to tie down the exact location of
the glass factory, but they did offer some clues.
Land records furnished the best evidence. Fran-
cis Moryson acquired a tract of land in 1654, des-
cribed in the property tranfer as the "Twenty four
Acres of Land commonly known by the name of
the Glass house." From that date on, a continuous
chain of title can be found for this tract, thus pro-
viding a location within reasonable limits: For
hundreds of years the area has been known as
"Glass House Point."
One version of the story is that Mr. Dimmick
was walking through the woods one evening in
1931 and accidentally kicked up a piece of slag.
Whether he found other evidence just then, he
recognized the significance of the find, and short-
ly began some test excavations.
He uncovered what appeared to be three stone
structures, and in the earth: remover from these
ruins, found fragments of glass and portions of
old crucibles, or melting pots. He did a little more
digging the following year and then covered over
the ruins and fenced in the site.
Thus the site stood until excavations were star-
ted by the National Park Service in the fall of
1948, exactly 340 years after Captain John Smith
put men to work building a glasshouse "neare a
myle from James Towne."
The earth was wheeled away as it was trowelled
out, and then screened, keping the material re-
covered from each unit within the area, and from
each soil layer, in separate containers. The digging
was done very carefully and slowly, for National
Park Service Archeologist Harrington was quite
confident of finding glass beads. Although not a
single bead was found, fragments even smaller
were recovered, as well as thin threads of glass,
often as fine as a small needle.
Because of the very nature of glassmaking, in
which salvaged glass is a valuable and necessary
ingredient in every new batch, one could not hope
to find much old glass, but Harrington was con-
fident that occasional pieces would have been
tramped into the dirt floor, and there was the
remote possibility that a supply of broken glass
had been left behind when the factory was aban-
These hopes were realized to a degree. After
removing the three-century earth accumulation,
careful excavation of the original earth floor of
the glasshouse produced a fair amount of broken
glass, all very small. But by far the most material
of this sort came from a small deposit at one corner
of the glasshouse. It quite obviously had once been
a small pile of waste glass lying on the floor, ready
for use in new batches. The material in this pile
consisted of every type of glass that one miight
find around a glass factory — broken glass objects,
as well as drippings and other refuse from glass-
The big surprise was in not finding any glass
beads or other evidence of bead-making, and the
keen disappointment was that none of the glass
fragments were large enough to show what the
original objects had been.
Of greatest interest, of course, were the remains
of four stone furnaces, or ovens, all built of
rounded river boulders imbeded in clay. The main
body of the furnace was circular, roughly the same
size as the one reconstructed in the present replica
The boulders varied considerably in size from
small rounded ones only 5 to 6 inches across to
large, irregular ones as much as 2 feet in length.
All are a common sandstone which appears in out-
croppings at the "Fall Line" some 75 miles up the
river from Jamestown. Identical boulders, how-
over, are found on bars and beaches along the
James River where they have been deposited by
The colonists knew of these deposits of river
boulders, for the record of Captain Newport's first
exploration up the James in 1607 realtes that
about 30 miles above Jamestown "the shoare be-
gan to be full of greate Cobble stones." Stone of
this type is not found in England, further evidence
that the building material was secured locally.
The three other smaller structures were also
built of river boulders .similarly imbedded in clay.
Archeological evidence provides few hints as to
the purpose o fthese smaller furnaces, or ovens.
Each shows clear evidence of having been fired,
for the clay between the stones is burned from
heat, and charcoal and ashes were found inside
them and on the glasshouse floor around them.
The smaller of these auxiliary units was built
with exceptionally large boulders, suggesting that
it might have been taller than the other two,
although it had the smallest fire chamber, only
IV2 feet wide and 4V 2 feet long. At the front was
a small platform consisting of a flat stone and
several soft, red bricks.
NPS archeologists exposed this foundation of a row house 170 by 21 feet which five or six ad-
joining families occupied in the seventeenth century — a forerunner of modern apartments.
Photo courtesy National Park Servirr.
Artifacts Relating To Glassmaking — Found Near The Site Of
The Jamestown Glasshouse
In the picture are shown a small melting pot, part of a working hole, frag-
ment from a large melting pot, cullet (the broken or refuse glass in the
lower left corner), and green glass fragments (lower center and lower right)
The other two units were built end to end. The
walls of these twin structures were less than a
foot thick, and being- built of relatively small,
rounded boulders ,could only have supported low,
One of the most important features found in the
excavation was a pit, located near the front of the
main furnace. It was roughly 8 feet square and
extended down about iy 2 feet below the original
ground level. The bottom was filled with furnace
refuse, containing ashes, fragments of old melting
pots, working hole frames, stone spalls, glass drip-
pings, and slag. This material quite obviously
came from a furnace ,and the only logical conclu-
sion is that the pit dates from the second glass-
making venture of 1621.
Further evidence that the material in this pit
came from a furnace is the absence of any frag-
ments of fabricated glass, such as found in the
pile of salvaged glass described above .Also of in-
terest is that the only pottery vessels found at the
site, other than the crucibles, came from this pit.
Fragments of two atricles were recovered, one
a leadglazed, red earthenware cooking vessel ; the
other a small Indian pot. Obviously the first glass-
makers at Jamestown had used one of the furnaces
for cooking their food.
A really important discovery was an old road
with ditches along each side. It is clearly the re-
mains of the old road that ran along the shore
from Jamestown to the glasshouse, then straight
into the mainland. In later years it was the main
road to Greenspring, Governor Berkley's planta-
The archeological exploration, described very
briefly here, actually revealed a great deal about
the physical facilities used by the glassmakers and
something about the way glass was made at the
Above all, they show that the colonists made a
sincere attempt to start a manufacturing enter-
prise, and that even though the time was not ripe
for success in their glass ventures, they were able
to, and did, preduce a workable glass comparable
to that made in English glasshouses of the era.
An important phase of the post-excavating stu-
dies involved research in England, made possible
by a grant from Glass Crafts of America, which
enabled Mr. Harrintgon to spend three months
there in the spring of 1950. No new documents
bearing directly on Jamestown came to light, but
a great deal of information was found concerning
Glassmaking at the time the Jamestown glass
factories were operating.
The furnace cf the Replica Factory now operat-
ing, the pot kiln, the lehr and other appurtenances
are based upon the archeology, research and study
of glass by Crafts of America ,the Jamestown
Glasshouse Foundation, the National Park Service
and more especially and particularly the work of
J. C. Harrington cf the National Park Service.
■ I— I
They Were Pioneers
of Liberty and Soldiers
Potash and other wood products and tobacco
were then the first products which Poland and
American colonies exchanged since earliest times.
But before these first commercial ties came into
being the Poles had the opportunity to play the
role of pioneers not only of American industry,
but also of American liberty.
In 1619, during the second administration of
Gov. Yeardley, an important change occured in
Virginia's public life. The number of inhabitants
rose since 1607 to 2,000 souls in eleven settlements
and the colony grew in prosperity. Up to this
time colonists were ruled by an absolute govern-
ment, but Yeardley inaugurated a limited au-
tonomy. On July 30, 1619, the first legislative
assembly on the American continent met at the
church in Jamestown. It was known as the House
of Burgesses and was composed of two delegates
from every settlement. This assembly became
known as the Mother of the American representa-
But not all inhabitants were enfranchised. Some
were denied the right to representation by the
Great Charter of 1618, issued by the Company
and under which Yeardley acted. Anyhow, the
Poles were disfranchised, which made them so
indignant, that they decided to cease working
till the unjust degree would be changed.
The dispute assumed such proportions that
Yeardley was forced to report it to the Council
in London. The Poles won in the end.
"That seems to show that the instincts of li-
berty were animating force with those Poles and
that they revolted at their social condition or the
virtual slavery in which they found themselves
contrary, no doubt, to the promises made in in-
ducing them to come to the new colony", writes
Martin I. J. Griffin (Catholics in Colonial Vir-
Enlivened by the spirit of freedom, these sons
of the then most enlightened free republic in the
world (Poland) tacitly suffered hunger and hard-
ships and quietly endured oppression. Even when
others idled they worked honestly for the colony.
Never did they become traitors. Never did they
quarrel nor plot against authority as did others.
But when they were denied an equal right to
participate in the affairs of the colony, they re-
This first strike of the Poles in Virginia, not
for economical advantages, but for political rights,
constitutes, indeed, one of the most beautiful
pages in the history of Polish immigrants in the
United States. Happening, as it did, over one
hundred and fifty years before the Revolution,
it may justly be regarded as the first fight and
the first victory for the cause of freedom on this
It must be acknowledged that Polish demands
for rights met no serious opposition from the Vir-
ginia Company which, notwithstanding their
strike, was satisfied with the Poles. The best
proof of this was the fact that the Company re-
newed its efforts soon after to bring over a greater
number of Polish workers.
MIECISLAUS HAIMAN: — Polish Pioneers
of Virginia and Kentucky, PRCU, 1937.
Contributors To The
Polish American Jamestown Fund
Expressing our deepest appreciation to all contributors, we are listing them in the same sequence in which
their donations were received and entered in the Polish American Jamestown Fund records.
1. Polish National Alliance, Chicago. 111. $1,000.00
2. Illinois Division, Polish American Congress,
Chicago. 111. 1,000.00
3. Polish Union of the United Stales of North
America. Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 200.00
4. Henry S. Banach, Chicago, 111. 100.00
5. Rev. Jan P. Hurynowicz, Menasha, Wis. 100.00
6. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Francis J. Pilarek, La Salle.
7. Michigan State Division.. Polish American
Congress, Detroit. Mich. 100.00
8. Polish Roman Catholic Union, Chicago, III. 100.00
9. Polish Falcons Kosciuszko Nest 888. Balti-
more. Md. 100.00
10. Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn, N. Y. 100.00
11. Josephine Serwinowski, Chicago. 111. 50.00
12. T. Osowski, Chicago. 111. 50.00
13. Ally. Casimir Griglik, Chicago, 111. 50.00
14. Anthony Janowski. Detroit, Mich. ... 50.00
15. Dora M. Alska, Pittsburgh, Pa. 50.00
16. Rev. Valerian S. Karcz. Hobart. Ind. 50.00
17. Mr. and Mrs. Waclaw Frysztacki. Philadel-
phia, Pa. 50.00
18. Michai W. Szeliga. Holland Patent, N. Y. 50.00
19. Rt. Rev. Msgr. W. A. Losieniecki. Wilkes
Barre, Pa. 50.00
20. Kazimierz Jarzembowski, New York, N. Y. 50.00
21. Stanislawa Koprowska, Hamtramck 12,
22. Alexander N. Pastick, Hartford, Conn. 50.00
23. John E. Babiarz, Pres. Wilmington City
Council. Wilmington, Del. 50.00
24. Florida State Division of Polish American
Congress, Miami, Fla. 50.00
25. Downstate New York Division Polish Amer-
ican Congress, New York. N. Y. 50.00
26. California - Arizona State Division Polish
American Congress 50.00
27. Eastern Massachusetts Slate Division Polish
American Congress. Boston. Mass. 50.00
28. Connecticut Stale Division Polish American
Congress, Hartford, Conn. 50.00
29. Rev. M. C. Lankau, The Sacred Heart of
Jesus Parish, Irvinglon. N. J. 50.00
30. Rev. Michael A. Gawron. St. Joseph's Parish,
Alliance, Ohio 50.00
31. St. Hyacinlh's Parish. Chicago. III. 50.00
32. St. John of God Church, Chicago, 111. __. .... 50.00
33. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Si. A. Kulpinski. Queen of
Martyrs' Church, Cheeklowaga. N. Y 50.00
34. Rev. F. Banaszak, St. Andrew's Church. De-
troit. Mich. 50.00
35. Rev. Michael F. Kowalczyk. Church of the
Sacred Heart of Jesus. Porlchesler, N. Y. .. 50.00
36. St. Adalbert's Congregation. S. Milwaukee,
37. Aid for Poland Society, Si. James Church,
Chicago, Ill„ Rev. Edw. A. Przybylski 50.00
38. Si. Albertus Parish, First Polish Roman
Catholic Parish in Detroit, Mich. 50.00
39. Cook and Dunn Paint Corporation, Adam G.
Dunn, Newark, N. J. 50.00
40. Polish National Union of America. Scranton,
41. Council of Uniled Polish Societies. Chester,
42. Polish American Eagle Citizens Club. Ches-
ter, Pa. , 50.00
43. Post No. 97 Polish Army Veterans Associa-
tion. Grand Rapids. Mich. 50.00
44. Meriden Council of Polish Organizations,
Meriden, Conn. 50.00
45. American Polish Uniled Societies, South-
ampton, N. Y. 50.00
46. Alliance College, Cambridge Springs, Pa., A.
P. Coleman, Pres. 50.00
47. Polish Falcons of America, Nest 88, New
Britain, Conn. 50.00
48. National Dept. Polish Legion of American
Veterans, Chicago, 111. 50.00
49. Polish Citizens Club, Inc., Hartford, Conn. . 50.00
50. United Polish Societies of Hartford, Conn. - 50.00
51. The Polish Council in Jackson. Michigan _. 50.00
52. Group 8 Polish National Alliance of Brook-
lyn. N. Y. 50.00
53. Moniuszko Singing Society, Group 1271
PNA, Cleveland, Ohio 50.00
54. Council 118 Polish National Alliance, Bos-
Ion, Mass. 50.00
55. Council 184 Polish Nalional Alliance and
component Groups. Riverhead, L. I., N. Y. _ 65.00
56. Council 122 Polish National Alliance and
component Groups, Hamtramck, Mich 50.00
57. Council 190 Polish Nalional Alliance and
component Groups, Union City, Pa. 50.00
58. Council 34 Polish National Alliance and
component Groups, Chicago, 111. 50.00
59. Cenlral Citizens Committee. Detroit, Mich. 50.00
60. Group 832 PNA. Free Poland Society, Johns-
town, Pa. _. 50.00
61. Group 827 Polish National Alliance, Youngs-
lown, Ohio 50.00
62. Group 744 Polish Women's Alliance, Irving-
Ion, N. J. 50.00
63. Group 205 Polish National Alliance, The Ra-
diant Society, Pittsburgh, Pa. 50.00
64. Frank Chudy, Three Rivers, Mass.; Stani-
slaw Kaminski, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Henry
Szaniawski, Scarsdale. N. Y.; Jozef Skra-
bacz, Niagara Falls, N. Y total 50.00
65. The United Savings Ass'n, Cleveland, Ohio;
Council 120 PNA. Chicago. 111.; Pulaski Mu-
tual Aid Society, Central Falls, R. I.; Group
1360 PNA, Lansing, Mich. total 50.00
66. Council 123 PNA. Chicago, 111.; Group 866
PNA, Farrell, Pa.; Council 29 PNA, Toledo,
Ohio; Polish American Citizens Club, Can-
ton, Ohio total 50.00
67. Group 1234 PNA. Avonmore, Pa.; Mrs. Kot-
larz, Chicago, 111.; Oswego Polish American
Club- Oswego, N. Y.; Polish National Home
Association, Lowell, Mass.; Polish Falcons of
America, Nest 171, Philadelphia. Pa. .-total 50.00
68. Group 520 PNA. Toledo. Ohio; Fraternal
Club of Stary Sacz, Chicago, 111.; Group 717
PNA, Easthamplon, Mass.; Witold W. Ko-
sicki, Ogunquil. Maine; B. Garwolenska,
Springfield, Mass.; Frank S. Savery. Three
Rivers, Michigan total 50.00
69. Group 559 Polish Women's Alliance. Ware,
Mass.; Polish Ladies Society, Yonkers, N.
Y.; St. Augustine Society, 1164 Pol. Roman
Cath. Union, Detroit. Mich.; Group 1241 Po-
lish National Alliance, White Eagle Soc, La-
trobe. Pa.; Group 170 Polish National Alli-
ance, Agaton Giller and Tomasz Zan Soc,
Chicago, 111.; Council 54 Polish National Al-
liance, Detroit. Mich.; Group 89 Union of
Polish Women, Irvington. N. J. total 50.00
70. Karol Smyrski, Philadelphia, Pa.; Group 326
Polish Women's Alliance, Kingston, Pa.; So-
ciety No. 1108 Polish Roman Catholic Union,
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Frank Bielawski, Philadel-
phia, Pa.; Sarmatia Universal, Inc.. Boston
Chapter. Boston, Mass.; Sea League. Branch
Gdynia No. 15. Brooklyn, N. Y. total 50.00
71. Polish Council No. 31 Polish National Alli-
ance, Mt. Pleasant. Pa.; Group 2332 Polish
National Alliance, Akron, Ohio; Post No. 40
Polish Army Veterans Ass'n., East Chicago,
Indiana; Pawet Watroba, Jersey City, N.
J. total 50.00
72. Philaretic Society Gr. 535 Polish Women's
Alliance, Wilmerding, Pa.; Group 177 Polish
Women's Alliance, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Group
972 Polish National Alliance, Saint Cloud.
Minn.; Rhode Island State Division of PAC.
Providence, R. I.; Group 308 Polish National
Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa. total 50.00
73. Wanda Smith, Holland Patent, N. Y.; Post
173 Polish Army Vet's Ass'n., Los Angeles,
Cal.; Post No. 36 Polish Army Vet's Ass'n.,
Passaic, N. J.; Jan Landoch, Bridgeport,
Conn.; A. J. Grobosh, Hendricks, Minn.; So-
ciety No. 1450 Polish Roman Catholic Union,
Brooklyn, N. Y. total 50.00
74. Council 76 Polish National Alliance, East
McKeesport, Pa.; Mrs. Matthew S. Mickie-
wicz, Northampton. Mass.; Post 142 Polish
Army Vet's Ass'n., East Chicago, Ind.; N. A.
Slapinski Drug Stores, Glen Lyon, Pa.; Rev.
Bernard Sokolowski, Niagara Falls, N. Y.;
St. Barczewski. Jr.. West End Dairy. Wil-
mington. Del. total 50.00
Council 60 Polish National Alliance, Char-
leroi. Pa.; Group 2514 Polish National Alli-
ance, Chicago. 111.,- J. Buczkowski. Central
Falls, R. I. total 50.00
Polish Amer. Citizens Club. Toledo. Ohio;
Polish Veterans in Exile Association. Inc.,
Branch 34, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Polish White
Eagle Social Club. Cumberland, R. I.; Gen-
eral Haller Soc., Cleveland. Ohio; Society
No. 818 Polish Roman Catholic Union, Wy-
andotte, Michigan total 50.00
77. Council 27 PNA and component Groups —
Rochester, N. Y. 50.00
78. Association of the Sons of Poland — Jersey
City, N. J. 50.00
79. Roehr Products Co., Inc. — Walerbury, Conn. 50.00
80. Council 111 PNA— Worcester, Mass. 50.00
81. St. James Church, Chicago, 111., Rev. E. A.
Przybylski, Pastor 50.00
81. State Dept. of Illinois Polish Legion of
American Veterans, Chicago, 111. __- 50.00
83. Delaware State Division of Polish American
Congress, Wilmington, Del. 50.00
94. District No. 1 Polish Army Veterans Asso-
ciation and Auxiliaries, Chicago, 111. 50.00
85. District No. 1 PNA and Women's Division
District No. 1 PNA, West Roxbury, Miss. __ 50.00
86. Indiana State Division Polish American
Congress, Hammond, Ind 100.00
87. Nebraska State Division Polish American
Congress, Omaha. Nebr. 50.00
88. Casimir Cabanski. Chicago, 111. 50.00
89. Chopin Chorus — Los Angeles, California;
Polish Air Force Association, Chicago. 111.;
Polish American Youth Association in Clif-
ton, N. J.; Raymond Godlewski, Oakland.
Cal.; Central Council of Polish Organizations,
Johnstown, Pa. total 50.00
90. Western New York Division of Polish Amer.
Congress, Buffalo, N. Y. 50.00
91. Rev. Julian Moczydlowski.. Monett, Mo.; Dq-
browa Parish Club, Chicago. 111.; Group 43
St. Joseph's Union, Wilmerding, Pa.; Group
403 Polish Women's Alliance, Carnegie, Pa.;
Polish Home Association, Franklin, N. H.,
Francis W. Dziob. Karol Burke, Joseph Wiewiora
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